Use data from Appendix D to determine whether the ion product of water, increases, decreases, or remains unchanged with increasing temperature.
PSY 2012 Exam 3 CHAPTER 7 – MEMORY Systems What is memory It is retention of information over time (persistence of learning) Sensory memory short-term memory long-term memory Not all information follows this conscious route. Short-term memory is not just about filling up a box with a fixed number of information units, for a fixed amount of time (this is far too rigid view of memory) Sensory Memory o Extremely brief sensory activation o Most sensory input never enters conscious processing o Sperling’s (1960) Experiment Types of sensory memory: o Iconic memory: o Visual o Approximately a second o Echoic memory: o Auditory o Approximately 5-10 seconds Working Memory o 3 functions: holding, processing, manipulating information o Attention is central to working memory o The span of working memory is typically limited to 7 (+/-2) items Short-term vs. Working memory Often used interchangeably- but not quite the same Short-term memory: o Digit span o 4 6 8 9 5 2 recall the numbers Working memory: o complex span tasks o 4 6 8 9 5 2 recall the number that occurred 2 places before 9 Working memory is often more interesting very predictive of other things. Memory loss from short-term memory Decay: fading of information from memory over time Interference: loss if information from memory due to competition from additional incoming information Waugh and Norman’s Experiment (1965) Retroactive interference: interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information o Ex: new password interferes with old passwords 2 Proactive interference: interference with acquisition of new knowledge due to previous learning information o Ex: left-hand traffic (old knowledge) interferes with right-hand traffic Chunking Grouping small units of information into larger units “unitizing” It increases the amount of information (span) that can fit in working memory o Ex: 12345678 123-456-78 Most effective when chunks are meaningful Expert chess players exceptional memory for realistic chess positions, random chess positions are poorly remembered Rehearsal Repetition strategy that increases duration of information in working memory Maintenance rehearsal: repeat stimuli until their original form o Dogs, cats, rats… dogs, cats, rats Elaborative rehearsal: linking stimuli to each other in meaningful way o “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” o typically works better at retaining information Two truths now confirmed by researchers 3 even sensory events that are not consciously attended to may affect long-term memory short-term memory is active and dynamic; let’s call it “working memory” to better reflect its processes. Long-term Memory Contains memory for experiences and knowledge collected over a lifetime. Large capacity system with largest span and duration Memories are distributed Karl Lashley’s maze experiments with rats (1950). Long term memory & working memory o Remembering involves retrieving information from long-term memory and bringing it into working memory. o EXTERNAL EVENTS SENSORY MEMORY WORKING/SHORT-TERM MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY Explic it Long- term Memor y Implic it Explicit Memory Memories we retrieve intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness. “declarative memory” With conscious recall Processed in hippocampus 4 When asked to ponder the experiences and knowledge we have collected over a lifetime, we are likely to focus on our explicit memories. Ex: recalling the president elected in 2008 and what you were doing when the results of the election were announced. Explicit Seman Memory tic Memor Episodi c y Memor y Semantic Memory: memory of facts, meanings, concepts, and knowledge about the world. Independent of personal experience and spatial/temporal context. Ex: who was elected president in 2008 Episodic Memory: memory of experiences and specific events. Times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge. Ex: what were you doing when the results of the election were announced Implicit Memory Memories that aren’t deliberately retrieved. “non-declarative memory” Without conscious recall 5 Processed by other brain areas, including cerebellum It can be shown even with amnestic patients. o Quicker to complete re-introduced tasks o Suitable candidates for classical conditioning. Implicit Procedural Conditioni Habituatio Priming ng n Types of Implicit Memory 1.Procedural memory: memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits a.having procedural memory for something doesn’t guarantee you will have semantic memory. 2.Priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we have encountered a similar stimulus. Where is memory stored Amygdala o Helps retrieve emotions associated with fearful events 6 o Emotional component of memories Hippocampus o Helps retrieve the events themselves o Factual components of memories Stages 3 Stages of Memory 1.Encoding paying attention 2.Storage keeping information 3.Retrieval recalling information Encoding = getting information in Attention Rehearsal Processing (different levels) Physical context Godden & Baddeley’s famous scuba experiment. They recalled words better under water in which they learned it. Mental state study high, take the test when you are high, score high! The spacing effect: periods of learning vs. massed (blocking) You will remember more material if you spread your learning trials over time 7 The testing effect: at first –within a short period of time- pure studying seems better than test, but in the long- term you recall things better when you study AND then take a test. It provides practice in retrieving the relevant material. Applications of Memory Research The Serial Position Curve (Primary and Recency Effect): people tend to recall the first thing and the last thing presented. Autobiographical Memory: recalling what you were doing at a public/historical event. (tragic, surprising, shocking) Flashbulb Memories: tend to recall detailed sensory emotional information Ex: what you were doing on 9/11 You recall these situations more because it is greater rehearsal, more elaboration, more distinct. They are similar to everyday memories (not a different mechanism, distinctiveness and elaboration Human memory is NOT perfect! o Memory is an active, constructive process. o We can change our memories. We forget, but we also add. o Ex: schema-driven memory: a word you didn’t see on a list but recalled it because it is in the 8 same category as other words. Recalling the word ‘chocolate’ after seeing a list of candy, sweet, honey, etc. o Source monitoring errors: can’t recall and mix the source of a memory. You believe you knew it but you actually saw it on TV. o Misinformation effect: words can affect later memory reconstruction. Ex: the car “smashed” vs. it “hit” or “contacted” False Memory o Researchers believe they may explain some reports of alien abductions, child abuse, and other false allegations. o Freud o We don’t want to recall the tragic events so we repress our memory suggestive memory techniques can be used to recall those memories. He may have implanted false memory to his patients. o Court officials the way they ask the questions can lead to false memory. o More recent memory contaminates the original. 9