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Use data from Appendix D to determine whether the ion

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 86 Chapter 16

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 86

Use data from Appendix D to determine whether the ion product of water, increases, decreases, or remains unchanged with increasing temperature.

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PSY 2012 Exam 3 CHAPTER 7 – MEMORY Systems What is memory It is retention of information over time (persistence of learning) Sensory memory  short-term memory  long-term memory  Not all information follows this conscious route.  Short-term memory is not just about filling up a box with a fixed number of information units, for a fixed amount of time (this is far too rigid view of memory) Sensory Memory o Extremely brief sensory activation o Most sensory input never enters conscious processing o Sperling’s (1960) Experiment Types of sensory memory: o Iconic memory: o Visual o Approximately a second o Echoic memory: o Auditory o Approximately 5-10 seconds Working Memory o 3 functions: holding, processing, manipulating information o Attention is central to working memory o The span of working memory is typically limited to 7 (+/-2) items Short-term vs. Working memory Often used interchangeably- but not quite the same Short-term memory: o Digit span o 4 6 8 9 5 2  recall the numbers Working memory: o complex span tasks o 4 6 8 9 5 2  recall the number that occurred 2 places before 9 Working memory is often more interesting  very predictive of other things. Memory loss from short-term memory  Decay: fading of information from memory over time  Interference: loss if information from memory due to competition from additional incoming information  Waugh and Norman’s Experiment (1965)  Retroactive interference: interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information o Ex: new password interferes with old passwords 2  Proactive interference: interference with acquisition of new knowledge due to previous learning information o Ex: left-hand traffic (old knowledge) interferes with right-hand traffic Chunking  Grouping small units of information into larger units  “unitizing”  It increases the amount of information (span) that can fit in working memory o Ex: 12345678  123-456-78  Most effective when chunks are meaningful  Expert chess players  exceptional memory for realistic chess positions, random chess positions are poorly remembered Rehearsal  Repetition strategy that increases duration of information in working memory  Maintenance rehearsal: repeat stimuli until their original form o Dogs, cats, rats… dogs, cats, rats  Elaborative rehearsal: linking stimuli to each other in meaningful way o “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” o typically works better at retaining information Two truths now confirmed by researchers 3  even sensory events that are not consciously attended to may affect long-term memory  short-term memory is active and dynamic; let’s call it “working memory” to better reflect its processes.  Long-term Memory  Contains memory for experiences and knowledge collected over a lifetime.  Large capacity  system with largest span and duration  Memories are distributed  Karl Lashley’s maze experiments with rats (1950).  Long term memory & working memory o Remembering involves retrieving information from long-term memory and bringing it into working memory. o EXTERNAL EVENTS  SENSORY MEMORY  WORKING/SHORT-TERM MEMORY  LONG-TERM MEMORY Explic it Long- term Memor y Implic it Explicit Memory  Memories we retrieve intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness. “declarative memory”  With conscious recall  Processed in hippocampus 4  When asked to ponder the experiences and knowledge we have collected over a lifetime, we are likely to focus on our explicit memories.  Ex: recalling the president elected in 2008 and what you were doing when the results of the election were announced. Explicit Seman Memory tic Memor Episodi c y Memor y Semantic Memory: memory of facts, meanings, concepts, and knowledge about the world.  Independent of personal experience and spatial/temporal context. Ex: who was elected president in 2008 Episodic Memory: memory of experiences and specific events.  Times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge. Ex: what were you doing when the results of the election were announced Implicit Memory  Memories that aren’t deliberately retrieved. “non-declarative memory”  Without conscious recall 5  Processed by other brain areas, including cerebellum  It can be shown even with amnestic patients. o Quicker to complete re-introduced tasks o Suitable candidates for classical conditioning. Implicit Procedural Conditioni Habituatio Priming ng n Types of Implicit Memory 1.Procedural memory: memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits a.having procedural memory for something doesn’t guarantee you will have semantic memory. 2.Priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we have encountered a similar stimulus. Where is memory stored  Amygdala o Helps retrieve emotions associated with fearful events 6 o Emotional component of memories  Hippocampus o Helps retrieve the events themselves o Factual components of memories Stages 3 Stages of Memory 1.Encoding paying attention 2.Storage  keeping information 3.Retrieval  recalling information Encoding = getting information in  Attention  Rehearsal  Processing (different levels) Physical context Godden & Baddeley’s famous scuba experiment. They recalled words better under water in which they learned it. Mental state  study high, take the test when you are high, score high! The spacing effect: periods of learning vs. massed (blocking) You will remember more material if you spread your learning trials over time 7 The testing effect: at first –within a short period of time- pure studying seems better than test, but in the long- term you recall things better when you study AND then take a test. It provides practice in retrieving the relevant material. Applications of Memory Research The Serial Position Curve (Primary and Recency Effect): people tend to recall the first thing and the last thing presented. Autobiographical Memory: recalling what you were doing at a public/historical event. (tragic, surprising, shocking) Flashbulb Memories: tend to recall detailed sensory emotional information  Ex: what you were doing on 9/11  You recall these situations more because it is greater rehearsal, more elaboration, more distinct.  They are similar to everyday memories (not a different mechanism, distinctiveness and elaboration Human memory is NOT perfect! o Memory is an active, constructive process. o We can change our memories. We forget, but we also add. o Ex: schema-driven memory: a word you didn’t see on a list but recalled it because it is in the 8 same category as other words. Recalling the word ‘chocolate’ after seeing a list of candy, sweet, honey, etc. o Source monitoring errors: can’t recall and mix the source of a memory. You believe you knew it but you actually saw it on TV. o Misinformation effect: words can affect later memory reconstruction. Ex: the car “smashed” vs. it “hit” or “contacted” False Memory o Researchers believe they may explain some reports of alien abductions, child abuse, and other false allegations. o Freud o We don’t want to recall the tragic events so we repress our memory  suggestive memory techniques can be used to recall those memories. He may have implanted false memory to his patients. o Court officials  the way they ask the questions can lead to false memory. o More recent memory contaminates the original. 9

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Chapter 16, Problem 86 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

Since the solution to 86 from 16 chapter was answered, more than 225 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132064521. The answer to “Use data from Appendix D to determine whether the ion product of water, increases, decreases, or remains unchanged with increasing temperature.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 21 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 28 chapters, and 3268 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 86 from chapter: 16 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:52PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, edition: 10.

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Use data from Appendix D to determine whether the ion