Fill in each blank so that the resulting statement is true. A linear equation that is not true for even one real number, and therefore has no solution, is called a/an ______________ equation.
Global Geography Study Guide Exam 2 South Asia 1. Why has South Asia avoided heavy influence from outside Asian nations South Asia has been well protected because of the mountains. They have little outside influence. 2. What physical geographic feature generally contributes to the annual flooding in Bangladesh Snow melt from the Himalayas causes flooding 3. What is a monsoon Monsoon- a seasonal wind. High and pressure areas spin in different directions. During the summer wet monsoons occur and bring rain- come off the ocean. Dry monsoons come from the continent. 4. In what way do the populations of South Asia and East Asia differ consider the growth rates South Asia- very high population density. People tend to have a lot of kids East Asia- high population but they are taking steps to decrease population increase (i.e. one child policy) 5. What is the Malthusian theory Rev. Thomas Malthus- An essay on the Principles of Population (1798) . This theory looked at the growth rate of resources (grow arithmetically) while population grows the amount of resources available. How to avoidople for catastrophe- delay marriage, have fewer kids. 6. In what ways has South Asia generally avoided the Malthusian catastrophe Malthus was a product of his time. Lifestyles changed when occupation started to change due to the industrial revolution. World grain production kept up with population. 7. What "justification" is generally used to explain why the Ganges is both a sacred river and one of the world's most polluted People believe that the river is so sacred that it can even cleanse the trash/pollutants that are thrown in it 8. What was the Chipko movement A movement between deforestation Deforestation- like Haiti India is a poor country where people have cut down a large amount of trees. Large corporations have come in and cut down large amounts of lumber. Women and children hugged trees in order to stop deforestation and it worked 9. What major event took place in Bhopal, India Bhopal Gas tragedy- pipes were not kept well and the leakage got out and affected the community. Most deaths due to a gas leak in history 10. Know the focal point of the initial ancient South Asian civilizations Early settlers came through the low lands near the coast into the Indus River Valley. Water is a great place to grow a civilization 11. What is the caste system Caste System- (Vaishyas through Brhmins are the twice born groups) Brahmins- Priests Khsatiyas- warriors, princely- historically the most powerful Vaishyas- merchants, landowners, artisans- skill of some sort Sudras- servants- most of the population Untouchables-Outside the caste system- below humans. Unclean. Most discriminated against. As of today the caste system is illegal. Socially the caste still exists. Reservation- like affirmative action in the US- more people from the lower castes are being accepted to universities. Still shows a stereotype towards lower castes. 12. Sikhism is primarily concentrated in which state of India Punjab 13. Hinduism is primarily focused in which two countries India and Nepal/Bangladesh 14. Why is Hinduism such a difficult religion to define There is not one unifying philosophy. It is so difficult to define because it is a collection of ancient Indian religions. 15. Due to their behavior, worshippers of the Hindu goddess Kali gave us what presentday term Thugs-people who follow a particular deity- they follow Kali. Kali killed Shiva. People thought they were following Kali by robbing and killing people. 16. What is the significance of Mt. Kailas Mt. Kailas- The holiest place in Hinduism- the earthly home of Shiva. Mt. Kailas is off limits. No one has ever climbed it. 17. What role did the Maratha play in helping preserve Hinduism in South Asia The Mughal (muslim) had over reached and the Maratha pushed back This is why Hinduism is in India. 18. What criteria is used in the formation of the various states of India The religions in that area 19. Be able to explain the general northsouth divide in India. The North is more povertystricken; the South is more affluent. The North is more illiterate; the South is more educated. 20. What postindependence plan did Mahatma Gandhi initially prefer for South Asia some wanted South Asia to remain united after WWII Gandhi was behind this) 21. What was the basis for partitioning of South Asia But they decided to partition south Asia based on where religions are concentrated. 22. What effect did partitioning have on the Indian city of Kolkata Kolkata- lost its prestige in the would- during British rule of South Asia it was the capital- good stopping place for ships because it was on a river. But after partitioning the state of Bengal was split in half. This caused Kolkata to lose a major trading area and the capital was moved to New Deli. Now it is one of the poorest large cities in India. 23. Why does the Indian state of Assam restrict immigration into its territory Assam- well known for tea production. They wanted to make sure that their state preserved Assamese culture. They limit they number of people that can move there because they want to keep the demographic balance 24. What territory is the claimed by both India and Pakistan, which has led to these two Kashmir-was ruled by a Hindu Priest but most of the people were Muslim- there was no problems until partitioning. 3 options- Become part of Pakistan, India or Independent (though they couldn’t vote for this so it was pretty much ignored) Pakistan sent military in. Then India sent in military to protect the Priest. In the 1970s India got a nuclear weapon. Fighting stopped until 1998 when Pakistan got nuclear weapons. Neither side has used them because the other would retaliate. 25. What 1974 event led to the temporary end of hostilities between India and Pakistan, an era of relative peace that eventually ended in 1999 Inida-Pakistan Cricket matches- the two countries rarely play in each other’s countries. They decided to have a Friendship Series in order to relieve pressure- this humanized the other side- both countries cheered for the other side and welcomed them. 26. Why did the British introduce sports to South Asia Britain attempted to bring their colonized people into the British empire. 27. In the early 2000s, what general purpose was the sport of cricket used by India and Pakistan To end hostilities between the countries 28. What territory lays claim to the longest continuous Buddhist country in the world Sri Lanka 29. What is the general source of division in Sri Lanka, one that led to a 25year civil war that ended in 2009 Tamils in Sri Lanka- moved from India to Sri Lanka (they are Hindu). They see themselves as ethnically different. Tamils are seen as second class citizens. Two sides went to war. Tamil Tigers (LTTE)- Tamil Terrorist group. India supported them until the 90s. They declared independence-though no one recognized them (made their own stamps). 30. What is the origin of Nepal's unique flag, which is the only non rectangular country flag in the world Hindu flags, which are triangular 31. What role did Prithvi Narayan Shah play in the creation of present day Nepal Prithvi Narayan Shah-Seen as the father of Modern day Nepal- united the Gorka Kingdom. 32. What unfortunate problem is Mount Everest facing today big problem with pollution with people leaving their trash from climbing it. Corpses are also left there- they become mummified because of the cold and elevation. 33. What function does Chimi Lhakhang serve in Bhutan fertility temple- women go there to try to become pregnant. 34. Despite possessing the highest per capita GDP in South Asia, Maldives faces an uncertain future. What is the greatest threat to the survival of the Maldives low elevation- tiny islands. Europeans buy islands exclusively for Europeans- usually for Honeymoons. Male- capital city. Facing a lot of pressure from rising ocean waters. In order to battle this they are trying to build islands that can adjust to rising ocean levels- but this is mostly being used for the benefit of Europeans. 35. What is unique about the North Sentinelese North Sentinel- last group that has not been contacted by outsiders- they kill anyone who tries to come on the island. North East Asia 1. Most of Asia's major rivers are sourced in which physical geographic region Himalayas 2. Chinese civilization developed around which two rivers Yangtze River and Huang River 3. What role did physical geography play in the creation of the early Chinese dynasties Chinese Rivers and early settlement- two separate civilizations were created- when these two came together this is the beginning of Chinese history- Qin Dynasty. Became the most dominant country in the world 4. What are the exceptions to China’s “Policy of Birth Planning” Policy of Birth Planning- the one child policy- Exceptions- 1- if you are a minority, 2- if you are an only child yourself, 3- if you live in a rural community (unofficial). 5. What demographic impact has the "One Child" policy had on China demographic issue- many Asian cultures favor boy over girls- usually the son takes care of the parents when they get old. If they have a choice of only one child they will usually want a boy- if it is a girl they are often girls are aborted, killed after birth or put up for adoption. Now there are not enough girls in the country 6. Because of Japan's physical geography, what steps has the country taken in terms of building its most recent airports Kansai International airport- built on an artificial island 7. What is Aokigahara Aokigahara- forest around mount Fuji- people go to commit suicide. Sound is blocked out. Financial reasons, older people who feel they are a burden. 8. What defines the population patterns of the Korean peninsula most of the population is in the western plains because most of the mountains are in the east 9. Taiwan's indigenous population is concentrated in the eastern portion of the country. What explains this pattern Many of the people here are close to Chinese. They usually never cross the mountains so there are indigenous people here too 10. How do the Gobi and Takla Makan deserts differ from Sahara Takla Makan- Exclusively in China- “Once you go in you never come out.” One of the harshest deserts in the world. Cold desert- extremely dry. (remember deserts are defined by lack of precipitation not temperature.) 11. In what region did Buddhism initially develop It started in South Asia but slowly spread into the east. 12. What is the philosophical foundation for Buddhism Focuses on the life of an individual who would later become known as Buddha. It is from his life where we get the main concepts. The 4 noble truths that come from the travels of Buddha himself. He saw suffering. The truths- to live is to suffer, suffering is caused by desire, there is a way to end this suffering, to end it you have to follow the Eightfold path. There is a belief is reincarnation 13. Know the difference between the three primary branches of Buddhism this includes geography and philosophy Theravada Buddhism- located in Southeast Asia. Believes that everyone must suffer- you have to be reincarnated to end the suffering. Nirvana- enlightenment/heaven. Mahayana Buddhism- largest Buddhist branch. It is possible to break the process of suffering in one lifetime. Located in Northeast Asia. Second oldest. Vajrayana (Tantrayana Buddhism – Tibetan Buddhists. The Daly lama is seen as similar to the Pope. They listen to everything he says. Life of giving up the material world. A lot of meditating. Very simple lifestyle 14. Know the two areas where Islam is the dominant religion in China. Ningxia- Muslim Autonomous region. Ethnically Chinese and speak Mandarin. Xinjiang- people are Turkic people- not ethnically Chinese- more similar to central Asian people. Uyghur-main people to live here- often labeled as terrorists. 15. Which Northeast Asian country is technically a Christian country, with close to 30 percent of its population adhering to Christianity South Korea 16. What is Shinto Shinto- Japans own religion- Ethnic Religion. It explains the origins of Japan. The concept is that all living things have spirit. It is a way of life more than a religion. 17. What is the main difference between Taoism and Confucianism Taoism-more of a way of life. Lao Tzu- founder of Toaism. Passive- we are all a drop of water in a river- go with the flow. Avoid confrontation. The world needs balance. Confucianism- about relationships- (ex- mother to child, husband to wife) Confucius was a teacher- Instead of being passive- be aggressive 18. In what way does Confucianism impact daily life in Northeast Asia there is an emperor in China- if things go wrong it is the peoples’ responsibility to rise up and revolt against him sports teams have a lot of respect for teammates and opponents. The older groups teach the younger. Respect for older people. Cleanliness- students often are the one cleaning the classroom. Wash hands and mouth before entering a temple. 19. What influence did the Chinese language have on neighboring languages The Chinese languages came from pictures that were used to represent different things. First language in the world in speakers. Chinese is a family of languages. There was an attempt to unite the Chinese languages by one of the early dynasties. The writing process became the unifier. 20. Why does Japan use two different alphabets in its written language 1 set is used for Japanese’s origin words. The other is used for foreign words. 21. How are food customs different in Northeast Asia versus western society Food Customs-They will eat an entire fish. If you are a guest in East Asia you are going to be offered the eye because it is considered the best part of the fish. Any part of the animal that can be used is used- pig heart, pig ear, etc. The puffer fish is a delicacy in Japan- you have to go through extensive training to prepare puffer fish because if it’s not prepared properly you can die. Rice- Cultural significance- comes from the earth so it is important to eat it. Sharing meals and drinks is a common practice in East Asia- you want to be in a group. Doing things by yourself is seen as weird. Some Koreans saw McDonalds as a clash of culture because McDonalds is an individual meal style. They also didn’t have rice so it was not seen as a meal 22. What is keiretsu Keiretsu- how culture has affected business. Keiretsu is a conglomerate of corporations that work to produce things in Japan. Mitsubishi is an example- they make cars, TVs, refrigerators, etc. Large corporations have their hands in many different businesses. 23. What influenced Japan to construct its road system to drive on the left side, which is opposite of the United States Driving in Japan-they drive on the left side. The samurais walked the left side to avoid clashing swords with other warriors. This translated to why they decided to drive on the left side. 24. What led to the Koreans to make kimchi spicy Kimchi- salt was expensive they began using cheap red pepper. 25. How did the Korean pop group Girls' Generation attempt to bridge the gap between Northeast Asia and the Western markets Internationalization of Northeast Asian Culture- Example- The Korean Group Girls’ Generation- they focused on international sales. They didn’t just hire Korean girls they hired Korean American girls. Trying to overcome the language barrier. 26. Notably different from Japanese pop culture, how has the "Korean wave," known as hallyu’ helped spread Korean pop culture The idea is after they develop something local- go to developing countries. The Jewel in the Palace- a Korean drama that was popular in Iran. Psi- Gangnam Style- brought Korean culture to America quicker than they wanted to. 27. What is the principle purpose of the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, Japan Yasukuni Shrine- anyone who died in WWII is shrined here. Even war criminals are honored. Celebrated the war. Shows justification in what the Japanese did It enrages neighbors. 28. Suggested by South Korea and China, what other name is being used for the Sea of Japan East Sea. 29. Know the two disputed islands discussed in class in relation to Japan. Dokdo (What South Koreans call the island)/Takeshima (What Japanese call the island) there might to petroleum underneath. Kuril Islands-Russians took them from Japan during WWII- but Japan still claims them-pushes for them to be returned. 30. Why were the hibaksuha considered to no longer be "Japanese" Hibakusha- they are discriminate against- the Japanese saw those who were affected by the bombs were seen as no longer Japanese- because of fear of birth defects many of them did not get married. They wouldn’t get hired because employers figured they’d be sick all the time. 31. How does Japan's strict immigration policy and xenophobia affect its population issues Population Quandary- Japan is losing population-not enough kids are being born. This is bad because there won’t be enough young people to take care of the younger generation. 32. Know the four dynastic periods of China mentioned in class. Qin Dynasty- 1 dynasty- origin of China. Great wall built during this time Han Dynasty- what most Chinese attach themselves to as far as culture goes. Ming Dynasty- last great Chinese dynasty- pushed the Mongols out. Exploration was at its height Ch’ing Dynasty- outsider dynasty- was the last dynasty- lasted until 1911. Not ethnically Chinese. Most expansive geographic area 33. What ancient Chinese groups were responsible for the various overthrows of dynasties, including helping create the modernday country of China and are said to be involved in the government of the Republic of China Secret Societies- operated on the need to survive. Mandate of heaven- power is given to the emperor by god- when the emperor lost this because of natural disaster, invasion, etc.- the secret societies would over throw him and put in a new emperor 34. What complicates the international recognition of the country of Taiwan, which at present only has diplomatic relations with 22 countries Republic of China- China had a civil war- lead by nationalists (the Republic of China)-controlled urban space. Mao Zedong- started a movement in the rural areas to fight for communism. In 1949 the communists had control over much of the country- Nationalists fled from mainland China- moved to Taiwan (Official name is the Republic of China). The People’s Republic of China was founded back on the mainland. (Republic of China- AKA Taiwan in 1949, led by CHIANG KAI-SHEL- RECONGZIED BY 22 COUNTIRES) 35. What was the Cultural Revolution Cultural revolution- trying to push Chinese culture and communism- if you didn’t go along with it you disappeared 36. What steps did Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping take to help open up China to the world Deng Xiaoping- lead economic reform- brought in elements of capitalism. Started to make relationships with the US and Canada- made China an economic power. In terms of population they are still very poor- but economy is strong. 37. What is the primary focal point of the 2014 demonstrations in Hong Kong Umbrella Revolution- protest broke out- they felt that they were going to be able to directly elect their president- but Beijing influenced their choices by only allowing communist candidates 38. During which Korean dynasty was the Hangul writing system created Joseon Dynasty 39. The presentday division of Korea into two countries is based on what After WWII there was hope that Korea could unite as one. But they were handed over the US (South) and Soviet Union (North) Line is all that divides them- the north invaded the south- but the US pushed them back- then China pushed again- now this arbitrary line is what separates them today. 40. The division of Korea cut off which traditional economic benefit from North Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)- isolated and can’t export anything. Forced labor to have enough food to survive. Desires for Unification- families were divided because of the line. During the Olympics they came in together. There is an argument that the US is keeping them from unifying. Post-war economics- South has grown- this could be a problem if they try to unify with poor North Korea. Idiot Abroad 1. What activity did Karl participate in where he needed to wear a "mawashi" Sumo Wrestling 2. What was peculiar about the hotel he stayed in while in Japan It was a capsule hotel. Small boxes lined a corridor 3 boxes high & ten across. It felt like a morgue. They are mainly used by businessmen who work late, go for a drink, and stay in a capsule in town. 3. According to Karl, for what reason do the Japanese want robots to "evolve" this is related to an issue we discussed in class Robot ASIMO: (advanced step in innovative mobility) world’s most famous humanoid robot. Performs to crowds in a car showroom a few times a day. Want them to evolve to take care of elderly who live alone, aging population needs support and cant rely on humans. Robots help around the house at a cheaper, private care. 4. What is funazushi A delicacy that is an ancient preparation of sushi that involves packing a fish with lots of salt, then fermenting it for up to 6 years. 5. While visiting the Zen Buddhist, what activity does Karl initially partake in, one that functions to help him think of "nothing" Zen Buddhism. He mops and cleans to become the mop and clear the mind by thinking of nothing but perfecting the mopping and cleaning. 6. What is the concept behind the Zen Buddhist "puzzle" of counting the stars, as explained by Matsuama The Zen answer is to just count one, two, three and so on. To just start because so many people give up before they have even started anything. We think the problem/job is too much so we give up before we even do anything. The concept is just to try. 7. As Karl was interested in the gadgets of Japan, what "invention" did he come up with while there, an accomplishment that he claimed is "more of a fulfilling achievement than climbing Mount Fuji" He had 15 pairs of pilko pump pants made up and a short stint on a TV shopping channel where he sold the lot. (basically He made massive pants called Pilko Pump Pants) South East Asia Study Guide 1. Which river of Southeast Asia runs through or borders all mainland Southeast Asian countries and is known for its giant catfish Mekong River 2. Which country is known for its floating markets, a reflection of the importance of rivers in the region Thailand 3. How do the population patterns of mainland Southeast Asia differ from that of Insular Southeast Asia (Islands) Mekong River delta very fertile and flat. The population follows the rivers in Mainland Southeast Asia. Vietnam is very mountainous most of the population is on the coast and the Mekong river delta Islands many islands have few people. Larger islands are usually more 55%of the population.is large but not heavily populated. Java, Indonesia 4. In terms of physical geography, how does the island of Borneo differ from the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra Borneo has no volcanoes and was part of the mainland of SE Asia. It is made up of limestone, poor soil & less populated. Sumatra & Java are volcanic. 5. Compared to the Pacific Ocean, why was the death toll from the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami so widespread, affecting all regions along the Indian Ocean rim Asia did not have warning bouys sent out and the Indian Ocean was not aware it was going to occur so everyone was hit without preparation. Learned that they need a warning system. 6. Though not the sole reason, the eruption of what volcano aided in the closing of Clark Air Base Mnt. Pinatubo in the Philippines 7. How did Malaysia and Indonesia differ in their approach to deforestation on the island of Borneo Thailand banned commercial logging. They wanted to protect environment. Created a Kutai national park to protect forest & wildlife. Malaysia heavily logged for Japanese markets. 8. What is a primate city Countries largest city is many times larger than the 2 largest city. 9. Know what explains the high birth rates in the Philippines, East Timor, and Laos. Catholic, ban on contraceptives. Makes them underdeveloped, poor. Economics & religion work against them. 10. What is transmigration Indonesian policy to get people to move from Java to other islands. Ease population strain, government offers money, not forced but encouraged. People return because of cultural differences & farming 11. Why have farmers from the island of Java struggled to reproduce farming practices on other islands, such as Borneo Farming techniques in Java are different from rainforest soil on different soil and it’s hard to adjust. 12. Who are the Rohingya Move from Bangladesh to Myanmar, persecuted by Myanmar people. Native Burmans say they aren’t a minority, the British brought them over & they need to go back to Bangledesh. 13. What economic activity have some of the rebel groups in Karen state used to fund its opposition against the Myanmar government Golden Triangle: Opium/heroine trafficking 14. Know the three major outside influences discussed in class. Expect a “which of the following is NOT…” type of question South Asian Influence: brought in architectural styles Chinese Influence: impact mainland; Thailand, Vietnam, Lao Islamic Influence: bring religion to spice islands 15. What particular event provided the catalyst for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i Because the US was in the Philippines, “too close for comfort” Thought they could get US out of the region by doing this 16. Due to its large Englishspeaking population, which East Asian country is becoming a site for U.S. call centers Philippines 17. Know the two Christian countries in Southeast Asia. East Timor and the Philippines 18. Though more violent than other groups in southern Philippines, what is the ultimate goal of the terrorist group Abu Sayyaf Fight for Serria law. Radical, extreme group. Chritian vs. Muslim battle Want autonomy: more rights for them to control the south Battle against the government (Religion vs. government) 19. Which Southeast Asian language’s written language was designed by French missionaries, and thus today uses a Latinbased alphabet and script Vietnamese 20. What purpose did the declaration of Bahasa Indonesian serve the country Unify the people through a national language, had Indonesian diversity. 21. How did the United States misunderstand the situation in Viet Nam Approached Viet Nam very carefully. US government was funding France and helping them after their loss in war. Viet Nam divided in N & S. (South was more independent) Allowed for elections to decide how to unify the 2 places. US thought Ho Chi Minh was a communist. N & S Viet Nam loved him & he was our George Washington. (US & Viet Nam on 2 different pages) Misunderstanding: US fighting communism, Viet Nam was fighting independence. US tried to stop communism: fought limited war, had a small scope. N. Viet Nam wanted independence 22. Most Hmong that fled to the U.S. reside in which region of the country, a fact reflected in the film Gran Torino Midwest: ex) Minnesota 23. Which country invaded Cambodia, acting as a sort of savior to help end the "Killing Fields" and the brutal regime of Pol Pot Vietnam 24. What was the primary cause of the increase in commercial, Westernoriented prostitution in Thailand Used to comfort stationed soldiers who were away from home, wives knew & young boys to become experienced. Handicapped women typically. Vietnam war ended & Thailand became “land of sex” to use prostitutes aside from comforting soldiers, they were left after the war. 25. In terms of prevalence, which region of Thailand has been affected the hardest by HIV The North: it’s a poorer region, not enough doctors to take care of them. 26. What is the primary source of division with regards to the ongoing turmoil in Thailand Ruralurban divide Yingluck Shinawatra tried to reform rural areas. In doing so it shifted money from urban to rural areas. Government came in and undid what Yingluck did. Red represents the rural, yellow represents urban (support the king) Try to help rural people and urban people get angry 27. What attribute is unique about the Mingangkabau of Sumatra Matrilineal society Power handed down on female side, usually on the male side. Property & power handed down through female side of family. 28. What is the source of the resource dispute between Australia and East Timor Oil fields Major oil field given to Australia, Zone of cooperation made by Indonesia. 80% given to Australia & 20% to Indonesia. East Timor said line should be further out so Timor would get some of it, Timor did not get any though & it favored Australia. East Timor now gets 80% and Australia gets 20%. Fought off Indonesia & East Timor can now develop. 29. Which water body creates a natural “choke point” that generates opportunities for pirate attacks in Southeast Asia Straight of Malacca 30. What country essentially banned Christmas by outlawing public displays of the holiday Brunei 31. What was the principle cause for Malaysia to kick out Singapore Singapore is 75% Chinese & Malaysia doesn't like China