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Get Full Access to Introductory & Intermediate Algebra For College Students - 4 Edition - Chapter 2.3 - Problem 2.1.308
Get Full Access to Introductory & Intermediate Algebra For College Students - 4 Edition - Chapter 2.3 - Problem 2.1.308

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# In Exercises 102105, determine whether each statement is

ISBN: 9780321758941 177

## Solution for problem 2.1.308 Chapter 2.3

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition

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Problem 2.1.308

In Exercises 102105, determine whether each statement is true or false. If the statement is false, make the necessary change(s) to produce a true statement. The equation x 1 3 1 2 is equivalent to x 2 3.

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SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes Chapter42:TheImmuneSystem Lecturegiven3/1/16 • Canfightoffpathogenswithbarriers(skinandmucousmembranes),nonspecific internaldefenses(phagocytosis,naturalkillercells,inflammation),andspecific immuneresponse(cell-mediatedandhumoralimmunity). Innateimmunity–aseriesofdefensesthatactimmediatelyuponinfection • Invertebratesrelysolelyonthis,canconsistof o Exoskeleton o LowpH o Enzymes o Immunecellscapableofphagocytosis • Vertebrateshaveinnateandadaptiveimmunity o Skinandmucousmembranes o Interferons o Neutrophils–phagocyticcells o Naturalkillercells-attackcancercellsandvirus-infectedcells o Macrophages o (Mostofthesearemodifiedwhitebloodcells) o Complementsystem • Tissuedamagetriggerstheinflammatoryresponse,candisinfectinfectedtissues andlimitthespreadofinfection SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes • Canbelocalizedorwidespread;somebacteriamaymakeittothebloodstreamif notdisinfectedfully,causesbacterialinfection • Bacterialinfectionsbringaboutinflammatoryresponseleadingtosepticshock– highfever,lowbloodpressure Lecturegiven3/10/16 Lymphaticsystem–abranchingnetworkoflymphaticvessels,lymphnodes(filterout bacteria,butcanswellup),andcirculatinglymph(similartointerstitialfluid,buthasless nutrients) • Lymphaticvessels–collectfluidfrombodytissues,returnlymphtoblood • 2mainfunctionsonlymphaticsystem: o Toreturntissuefluidtothecirculatorysystem o Tofightinfection • Aslymphcirculates,itcollectsmicrobes,partsofmicrobes,andmicrobialtoxins; transportsthesetolymphaticorganswheremacrophagesingesttoxinsand lymphocyteshaveanadaptiveresponse Adaptiveimmunity(acquired)–asetofdefensesfoundonlyinvertebratesthatisonly activatedafterexposuretocertainpathogens • Slowerresponse,recognizesspecificpathogens(antigens),andhasa“memory” • Ourcellsarelabeledwithuniquesurfacemembraneproteins(MHCmarkers) thatcharacterizecellsasours,distinguishthesefromforeignparticles o Self–abletorespondtothingsthatareapartofus SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes o Non-self–whattriggersanimmuneresponse,isnotapartofus Antigens–anyoutsidesubstancethatelicitsanadaptiveimmuneresponse;canbe viruses,bacteria,dust,etc.–anythingforeign • Whileantigenreceptorsareveryspecific,antigensthemselvescanbindto severaldifferentcellsandtheirantigenreceptors Lymphocytes–whitebloodcellsresponsibleforadaptiveimmunity,originatefromstem cellsinthebonemarrow • Differenttypesoflymphocytes o Blymphocytes(Bcells)–continuetodevelopinthebonemarrow; humoralimmuneresponse o Tlymphocytes(Tcells)–developfurtherinthethymusglandtomature; cell-mediatedimmuneresponse o Bothofthesefinishmaturinginlymphaticorgans(lymphnodes,spleen) • BandTcellsdifferentiatefromeachotherandothercellsduringmaturationby formingantigenreceptorsintheirplasmamembrane;allantigenreceptorsona certaincellareidenticalandrespondtoonlyoneantigen • Together,BandTcellswardoffdiseasesandinfectioninbothbodyfluidsand cells–everypersonhascommonanduniqueresponsestocertainantigens Clonalselection–modelforadaptiveimmunitydealingwithantigens • AcertainBcellisselectedandmultipliedinresponsetoanantigen SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes • SomeoftheseBcellsbecomeeffectorcells,whichsecreteantibodiesintothe bloodandlymph • Othersbecomememorycells,usedifantigenencounteredagain • Primaryvs.secondaryimmunity o Primaryresponseoccursatthefirstencounterwithanantigen,slow o Secondaryresponseoccursatthesecondencounterwithanantigen, faster o Bothactivateeffectorcellsandmemorycells

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