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# In Exercises 18, plot the given point in a rectangular

ISBN: 9780321758941 177

## Solution for problem 3.1.15 Chapter 3.1

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition

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Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition

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Problem 3.1.15

In Exercises 18, plot the given point in a rectangular coordinate system. Indicate in which quadrant each point lies. (6, 3.5)

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CDAE 002 Final Study Guide Lecture 3/15/16 Nation-State and Indigenous People  American History and Paradigms o Colonialism and Indigenous People o What is colonialism  Policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas o Industrial revolution in Europe: accumulation of fortunes  Nationalism, racism, etc. turns economic competition into political/military conflict o African Ethnicities before Colonization vs. Colonial border scramble o The scramble for Africa: Footprint of the Imperial Boot  Changed education systems, legal systems, food provisioning systems, social systems  Example: legacy of colonial languages o Footprint of Imperial Boot  Cultural alienation  Cultural imperialism (reference groups)  Destruction of indigenous food systems  Destruction of industrial industries  Example: British prohibiting Indian textile industry  Institutionalization of racism  Selection of favored groups  Training up to middle-class bureaucracy  Native Americans o Constructing the Nation-State  Creating the “other”  “savages”  unorganized  inhumane  killers  raped women  Language  Boarding schools  teaching English  Pressure to assimilate  Violence and Genocide  Pushed to reservations on poor land  Killed buffalo  Indirect and direct forms o Indigenous People’s Culture vs. the Culture of Capitalism  They are mobile  They have their own resources and land  They have a kinship based social structure  Egalitarian societies  They control resources and land desired by capitalists o Buffalo/bison o Boarding schools  “Kill the Indian, save the man” o Dress as a form of assimilation o Doctrine of Discovery and General Allotment Act  o Trail of Tears  Cherokee people  Indian removal policy  4,000 out of 15,000 died o 1880’s Ration ticket  American Indian Museum  Ration Day, people line up for food  Poor diet consisting of lard, flour, bacon, sugar, coffee and beef o Self Determination Era  (1965-Present)  1968: Indian Civil Rights Act passed  1975: Indian Self Determination and Education Resistance Act  Tribal governments oversee their own social services o Government shutdown impact on Native Americans  Majority of them live in poor, rural isolated reservations  o Kalahari bushman  Botswana  Access to land poor  Borders very difficult to cross  Livelihood weak  *video* Bushman  Lack of acknowledgment of indigenous people from the government  Building of walls  Wearing western clothing  Etc.  The Nation-State o The origin and history of the state  How did Europe change  *video* = changing map of Europe throughout the years o Creating “the other”  Group to distinguish yourselves by  Country or individuals distinguished by their “otherness”  Frustration and anger in economic downturns o Language, Bureaucracy, Education 3/17/16  Sochi Olympics o 9 time zones in Russia o Who is considered a Russian  185 different ethnicities  Nationalism  “We are all Russians”  Demeaning others  Distinct arts and music o Expelled ethnic group protests over Sochi’s dark history  Sochi massacres in the 19 century  Language as unity o France  French speakers were the norm  You got beat up if you didn’t speak French o UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger  528 extinct languages  We lose the way we see the world through loss of languages  British Empire dress and holidays o Another way to unify  Education o Instruments to achieve:  Order  social stability  national identity  national defense  economic expansions o Industrial societies and capitalist economics require:  Division of labor  Ability to shift from task to task and area to area  Precise communication between strangers  Universal literacy o Public school  Lunches in different countries  School lunch program goes back to WWI with malnourished soldiers  Bureaucracy o Transportation systems linking isolated groups o Military service  “support the troops”  Bonding and unity if you were a part of the military  Violence and Genocide o Cambodia  Khmer Rouge (1975-1979)  Pol Pot  Quarter of the population died under his rule o Starvation o Medical neglect o Overwork o Execution  Goals o Unify the nation o Purification  Tools o Hard labor o Evacuated cities o Disorganized o Shock o Torture  Who is affected o Women o Children  *video* Most Evil Men in the world  Country using violence against its own people  Ronald Reagan 1980’s  Americas and Communism  *video* School of the Americas: School of Assassins o Army training o Combat schools o Latin America o People trained here go on to oppress and kill in their countries  *video* War on Democracy o Interview with CIA operative o He denies everything  Assassinations  Murders  Massacres o Shock Doctrine and Disaster Campaign  Naomi Klein, author of “The Shock Doctrine”  *video* Shock Doctrine  Shocking people into obedience  Techniques work on individuals but also can also work on groups of people, countries, etc.  Shocks can be war, natural disaster, etc.  Shock wears off  Know what is happening around you and why 3/22/16 Peasant Protest, Rebellion and Resistance Indigenous response to colonial rule  Characteristics of Indigenous people o mobile o Communal ownership of valuable resources o Kinship-based social structure o Egalitarian o Control resources or land desired by members of the capitalist nation-state  What is a peasant o A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture  Land tenure o The relationship whether legally or customarily defined, among people, individuals or groups with respect ro land o Defines who gets access to  Use rights  Control rights  Transfer rights o Part of social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political structures o Land tenure relationships may be formal or informal  Private  Communal  Open access  State  Peasant societies o General production systems  Rent funds (landlords)  Replacement funds (seeds for next year’s crops)  Ceremonial funds (social cohesion)  Production for self/gardens/livestock o Land based system  Production depends on amount and quality of land for production  Peasant protests struggles for land  Challenges to peasant/smallholder agriculture o Economic and social changes o Land fragmentation o Reduced investment and support for smallholder agriculture  Weapons of the weak o Peasant folklore  Robin Hood o Avoid open confrontation  Gossip  Don’t come to work  Threaten to work for others  Resisting Colonial Rule (Kenya) o Footprint of imperial boot  Plantation agriculture  Primary product exports o Kikuyu and Mau Mau Rebellion  British struggled to repress rebellion by Kikuyu peasant farmers  Rebels/Mau Mau killed those loyal to the British o Social Organization  Council of the elders o The Happy Valley  Settlers  Partied a lot  Drank o White Highlands  System of taxation and land removal  Kikuyu used to own land but then they turned into squatters working to live on their own land  Squatters sold their surplus  Hours of squatter work rose  Taxation on the money they did make  Reduced Kikuyu land and livestock ownership  Kipande  ID tag that had o Age o Ethnicity o Work o Etc.  Had to wear it at all times  Any white person could write whatever they wanted on it o Kikuyu reserves and mission schools  Reserves overpopulated  Overplanted  Extreme soil erosion  Widespread hunger  Migration to cities  Mission schools  Dress  Language  Culture  Values o Resistance from individual  collective  Individual  Strikes  Not going to work  Killing settler’s livestock  Collective  Kikuyu Oath  Kenyan African Union (KAO) o Mau Mau: The Land and the Freedom Movement  Rational  Organized  British became paranoid about the oath  They round up suspects  Detention camps  Forced labor camps  To try and destroy the oath  Starvation  Murder  Rape  Mutilation  Few taken to court o If you were you were assumed guilty  Kenyan independence  Dec 12, 1963  Torture, Murder, Cover Up  Long Arc of Justice  Demands for reparations  Reparations o Compensation for past wrongs o Who gets compensated  Those directly harmed  Descendants  Direct or systematic o Cash, grants, credit  International aid  Small scale lending  Grameen Bank  USAID o Acknowledgment o Institutional change o Trade agreements o Changing colonial names o Choice of clothing  Nelson Mandela o Cultural history  Tourism of memory o Reparations  Think about connections to justice, healing and closure Development Paradigms  Improvement varies  Capitalism o Individuals freely acting out of rational self-interest o Maximize pleasure o Minimize pain  Free Market o Prices reflect scarcity and value o Restricted government role o Secure property rights o System of \$ and credit o Enforce contracts o Facilitate international trade  Government Intervention o Keynesian o Problems with Free Market  Instability (Great Depression)  Exploitive  Can’t price accurately (externalities)  System leads to monopoly o Need for enlightened government regulation o President Roosevelt o Bretton Woods and the World Debt  New Hampshire meeting  Work Progress Administration  World Bank  International Bank for Reconstruction and development  To make loans for projects  International Monetary Fund (IMF)  Make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange  Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)  1995  ensure free trade of commodities among countries  World Trade Organization (WTO)  Rules on claims of unfair trading policies by member nations  Development and Modernization Theory o Rostow’s Model Stages of Economic Development  Traditional society  Transitional Stage  Take off  Drive to maturity  High mass consumption  Large scale infrastructure development projects o Hydroelectricity o Roads  Dependency Theory o 70’s and 80’s o 3 world underdevelopment is the result of 1 worldt overdevelopment o Roots lie in colonial history  Core/Periphery countries o Structural disadvantages o Means of production o Economic sector  Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory  Debt crisis o Changing the meaning of money o 1971  US devalues dollar from gold  No printing limits o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize  Loans adjustable to go up or down  Bigger the project the more the bank can lend  Borrowers pay more on loan repayments than they make off of the loan  Neoliberalism in the 1990’s/today o “liberal” in sense of no controls o “Neo”  new  Post Keynesian sense o Magic of the markets o Main elements  Rule of the market  Cutting public expenditure for social services  Deregulation  Privatization  Replacing “public good” with “individual responsibility”  Jamaica o *Video* Life and Debt (continued and finished on 3/29)  The Free Zones  Separate entity from Jamaica 3/24/16 International Community Development  Why International Community Development o Hunger o Poverty o Diseases o World statistics  High mortality rate in children  Discrimination towards women o Community Development story in Honduras  *video* World Vision  Family farming o Grow lettuce for Walmart due to the help from World Vision  Donated chickens for another family  A woman started a savings club  What does International Development mean o Beyond the border o Community owned and managed o Work for community well being o Mobilization of local resources o Focus to women, children, margined population o Technical and financial cooperation  What’s the purpose o Improve quality of life  Especially the poorest of the poor o Initiate sustainable development o Improve Human Development Index (HDI) and put people back at the center (UNDP)  HDI based on:  Life expectancy  Adult literacy  Enrollment in schools  GDP per capita  Goals of International Community Development o Make sure you link your paper to these goals!! o Eradicate poverty and hunger o Gender equality o Universal primary education o Reduce child mortality o Improve maternal health o Combat HIV/AIDS o Maintain environmental sustainability o Develop global partnership for development  Followed by millennium development goals  ICD story in Nepal o *video* International Nepal Fellowship  Widow shunned by community  Went to India but had to move back  Joined International Nepal Fellowship and got a buffalo to sell its milk  Now has enough money to support her daughter’s dream to become a nurse  She is part of an INF support group  Approaches of International Development o Top down  *Graphic*: Middle layers take things along the way down so there’s little when it reaches the bottom  Budget based planning  Macro perspective  Expert and consultant based  Lack of transparency  Possibility of corruption  Ignorance of community needs and resources  May create dependency and lack of community support  Suitable for forming policies and procedures  Ex: No Child Left Behind  Equitable distribution of resources, states, county, district, etc. o Bottom up  Better targeted to community needs  Find micro solutions  More innovative ideas  Community ownership  May lead to sustainability  Transparency and flexibility in implementation  People employment  Women  Minorities  Mobilization of local resources  Main focus areas of ICD o Infrastructure support  Health care  Transportation  School  Market o Continued on slide… 3/29/16 Radical Political Economy (70’s and 80’s)  Change in society can transform society to be more socially responsible  Power = inherent conflict with the rich and poor o challenge those in charge  Good society o Consumer sovereignty (equal access to material benefits) o Access to meaningful work o Citizen sovereignty (people determine the type of community they live in) o Ensure equality and equity  Dependency Theory o Structural disadvantages of periphery vs. capitalist core o Means of production and economic sector are most important in any society o *video* World Systems Theory  Core, Periphery and Semi Periphery countries emphasize global inequality o Terms of trade vs. Capital Entrepreneurial skills  Debt Crisis o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize o Loans are adjustable o Borrowers pay more than they receive o Reschedule debt payment—government alters policies through forced change for countries  Impact on individuals and environment  Debt o Most debt newly created (80% since 1990) o Emerging economies grow fast o Wealthy economies struggle to grow o Greece  Structural adjustment policies due to debt  *video* Crisis in Greece  They feel like “economic hamsters”  Strikes of all kinds by people from all walks of life and professions  7-year-old with asthma that can’t afford to go to the doctor  no money for it  Jamaica o *video* Life and Debt continued…  Free trade zones  Delayed payment to workers  They say that Free Trade Zones are for the poor, but that’s not seen  Agriculture  Bananas  They export to the UK  Latin America grows a lot of bananas  Costs more in Jamaica to grow same bananas grown in Latin America  Chickens  Poultry o Which theories of development do you see in the film  Dependency Theory  US deporting chicken for a lot less than it takes Jamaicans to do that same  Neoliberalism  Privatization of government  None left for health, education, roads, worker rights, sewage o How does the mission of the IMF, WB and WTO relate to the film  Governing instituitons setting the terms of trade  Chiquita, Dole, Tommy Hilfiger, Hanes  WTO  Rule on Lome  Gives Caribbean access to European countries  They sided/ruled with Dole and Chiquita o Who is affected by IMF’s loans to Jamaica  Workers  Children  Families  Structural Adjustment Policies o Government focused on free trade  Vermont farmers and temporary farm workers o 2,500 workers documented o Majority from Jamaica  Banana Republics o Places that have one primary export crop o 5 international companies account for ¾ of the world banana trade o Bananas are the biggest profit making item in UK supermarkets o Cost of production is cheap—but what about externalities o Grown in tropical countries o Overuse of pesticides o *video* Fair Trade Bananas clip  Special needs education  The hope for free trade continues 3/31/16  Babies in the River Example o Babies floating down the river, what do you do  iclicker question: Famine is caused by o The inability to buy or grow food Malthusian  Paradigm of Development  Overshoot and Collapse o Carrying capacity  Maximum population of a particular speciies that a given habitat can support over time o Overshoot  Condition in which population size of a species temporarily exceeds carrying capacity of environment  Leads to sharp reduction in its population o Example: St. Matthew Island—Bering Sea  1944  US Coast Guard introduces 29 reindeer  Lichens are extensive and there are no predators  Over the years the lichens disappear and most of the deer died  Malthusian o Carrying capacity o Humans will not be able to offset their consumption of resources o Good life unattainable o “Lifeboat” strategies and policies  rationing  immigration  population o The Malthusian Catastrophe Famine, Hunger and Food Access  Consequences of poor nutrition o 842 million people in the world don’t have enough to eat o 827 million live in developing countries o 1 out of 6 children is underweight o 1 in 4 is stunted o 80% of stunted kids live in just 20 countries  Why the focus on stunted children o Stunting  Below median height for age of reference population  Results from nutritional deficiency during child’s first 1,000 days o Consequences  Impaired cognitive development  Bodies shut down  Susceptible to disease  Apathetic  Do poorly in school  Earn less when they become adults  Example: brain scan of 3-year-olds normal and malnourished o International Response  Stunting typically becomes permanent  Improvement after age 2 can restore a child’s health to near normal  Children grow up to be adults and it effects the country’s society, economy and development  Vicious cycle  Causes of Famine and Hunger o Biological o Crop failure o Social, Political, Economic o Misconceptions about world hunger  World hunger is not due to insufficient food production  Famine is the most common reasons for hunger and it’s rarely caused by food insufficiency  Hunger is not caused by overpopulation o 2013 crop yields set records  1840’s Irish Potato Famine o Potato monoculture o Lump potatoes o Fungus in the potatoes from Mexico o Cloned potatoes have no diversity so when the blight hit, all potatoes were affected o “Famine fever”  Cholera  Dysentery  Scurvy  Typhus  Starvation  Death o Ireland was still exporting food to England  Wheat  Oats  Barley  Onions  Peas  Beans  Lamb  Rabbit  Etc. o British rule  Irish Catholics prohibited from purchasing land  Had to rent plots and pay a landlord  Farmers can’t pay rent so they are jailed or evicted  500,000 tenant farmers evicted off land and relocated to poor houses  Died of starvation and disease  Can’t purchase food or grow food because they don’t have enough money o Migration from Ireland  Over 10 years, 2 million left for Great Britain, Canada and US  Irish population reduced by a quarter in 5 years o Legacy  Memorials  Animosity toward British  British eventually help  bring in cheaper grain  Start soup kitchens  Emergency work relief  Too little too late  Long lasting effects  Bengal Famine 1943 “Man Made Holocaust” o AKA Churchill’s Secret War o 3 million died from starvation and malnutrition o Burma taken by Japanese in 1942 o Cyclone hit in the same year o Panic among administrators that Japanese would take over the bay  They destroyed food stocks in case they take over o Prices increased 4-fold between March and October 1943  Example: Davis Center food going from \$7 to \$28 o Rice is available but it’s being exported to British troops in Mediterranean o War time inflation o Increase demand for food o Price increase for rice  Farmers hoard rice  Rational reaction to get higher prices due to demand o Wages don’t follow the price trend  Migration to cities  30% of the laborer class dies o Government mismanagement  Preventing trade between states  Calcutta must have food o Famine ends  Bengal imports again o Churchill  “The Indian people brought this upon themselves by breeding like rabbits”  Malthusian idea  War and Hunger in 2016 o Using food and starvation as a weapon is a war crime o Madaya, Syria  *video* o Yemen conflict  Saudi Arabia airstrikes to curb the rebels  1.5 million people displaced  Trouble accessing food, water, fuel  14 million food insecure  7 million severely food insecure  1 in 2 children under 5 are stunted due to hunger  *video* Children with life threatening malnutrition in Yemen o One of the keys in distribution of food and resources o What does hunger look like o Food riots in Mozambique  Hunger and Famine review o Hunger isn’t caused by lack of food but by people’s lack of ability to purchase food o Famine is a reflection of  Supply and demand  Commodity price speculation  Hoarding o Hunger and famine is a consequence of:  Political unrest  Bad government  Disruption due to war o Global economic forces bring about poverty  Low wages  Debt of periphery  The Working Poor and Hungry o Wal-mart  Not paid enough  Low wage protests o Happening in our own country not just globally th  IPCC 5 Assessment of Climate Change o Climate change to lead to dramatic drops in wheat and maize o Climate change is projected to create more negative than positive aspects for agriculture o Climate change connected to rising food prices o California drought o Food abundance and food waste Demography: Population Growth, Migration and Urbanization  World Population growth o *video* National Geographic video—7 billion  We don’t need space, we need balance o Population policy  Strategy for achieving a particular pattern or population change o Direct population policy  Aimed specifically at demographic behavior  Increase # of kids o Tax credit o Social services  Limit # of kids  Free contraceptives  Legalize abortion  Sterilization  Improve quality of healthcare and education o Indirect population policy  Influence population change but may not be designed too  Trade Agreements o NAFTA  Climate change  Conflict/war o Demography  Study of populations  What happens over a person’s lifetime  Population  Balancing equation  Birth rate  # of births per 1,000 women of population each year  Different in each country  Liberia = 38/1,000 in the population  US = 14/1,000 in the population  Fertility rate  # of live births per 1,000 women of child bearing age in given year  Total fertility rate  *on the slide*  Fertility rates vary  Worldwide fertility rates declining but the population isn’t  *continued on the slide* 4/5/16  Belo Horizonte, Brazil o 2.5 million people o If you’re too poor to buy food, you are no less of a citizen o Constitutional right to food as a right of citizenship o *video* Brazil’s Zero Hunger Program  Schools have free lunches  Cantinas for the public o Land tenure = access to land o Direct marketing o Immediate use of crops for food o People’s Restaurants  Locally grown food  50 cents/meal  Families, kids, save \$, working parents and women, elderly, low income workers o Infant malnutrition drops 50% o Consumption of fruits and vegetables increases o Costs \$10 mil/year, only 2% of the budget o New social mentality  Quality food for all is a public good o Not a public handout  Job training in food service  Government facilities  Creates opportunity  *iclicker question* How many children would you like to have  Death rates o Total # of deaths per 1,000 of a population per year  Life expectancy o Estimate of average number of years a person can expect to live based on age specific death rates for a given year o Varies in different countries  Factors affecting mortality o Degeneration  Biological deterioration of body  Illness  Diseases o Infectious diseases/ parasitic diseases  HIV/AIDS  Malaria o Food insecurity and hunger can contribute to mortality as well  Exponential growth o Constant rate of growth applied to a continually growing base over time o Doubling time  Time it takes for a population to double in size  70/x  x = annual growth rate  Global goals o Reduce population and fertility o Increase wellbeing and growth  Why do you have kids o Families around the world differ in size, traditions, lifestyles  Examples: Nigeria, India, US, etc.  Demographic Transition Theory o Population vs. poverty o Links between fertility and economic development o Theory says:  Economic development leads to lower fertility  Ignores fertility rates as factor of social and economic factors  Wealth Flows Theory (Caldwell) o Two types of Reproductive strategies  No economic gain to restricting fertility  Wealth flows from kids  parents  Economic gain to restrict fertility  Wealth flows from parents  kids o Relationship between family structure and fertility  Importance of kinship  Nuclear vs. Extended family  Nuclear  Mom, dad, children  Independence  Individualism  Extended  Kin  Group collective  Resource sharing  Population o Women can adjust fertility in response to local conditions o Demand for children in developing countries remains high  Cost is low  Provide labor  Security in old age  Etc.  Malthusian Theory o Neo-Malthusian  Economic development requires lower fertility  Masks other reasons for poverty  Age Dependency Ratio o Ration of those in labor force and those not in the labor force o Dependents  Younger than 15, older than 64 o Productive  Working age population between 15-64 o Total Dependency Ratio  (# of people age 0-14 + those 65 and older) x 100 (# of people aged 15 to 64)  China’s Great Tsunami o Globally a greater number of older people o Mandatory retirement age  60 for men, 55 for women in white collar, 50 for other women  More developed countries have aging populations  Less developed have larger young populations  Both young and old are outside of the labor force  Megacities o Urban slum  *video* Life in urban slums  high poverty  lack of infrastructure  high sense of community  concern for safety and education  lack of stability  vulnerable  predatory landlords o Four Population “Megatrends” -Shifts in power dynamics  Majority of population growth will occur in less developed countries  Most developed countries will get older  Most of world population growth will be in countries with youngest and poorest populations  Most will live in urban areas  *video* Population age structure  Population pyramids Gender and Development: Women in Population Policies  Girls education works  Gender, power, reproduction  *video* Gate’s Foundation for Family Planning  1994 Cairo Population Conference o Population is women’s issue o Rally support to help women deal with it o Confront and control consequences of:  Growing population  Growing poverty  Growing affluence  Birth control and paradigm shifts o 1964/1965 Rubella Pandemic o Zika virus  Transmitted by mosquitos  Babies are born with small heads 4/7/16  Gender Equality and Development o Beyond reproduction o Women’s triple burden  Household (cooking, cleaning, collecting water  Childcare  Work outside the home o Why focus on women  *video* UN Women: Putting the Women’s Agenda as a Priority  What are the issues o 70% of women are abused but only 10% are in political leadership o Physical violence o Women lack basic rights and accesses to resources such as owning land, sending kids to school, get married, mobility  What is the UN doing about it/What are the approaches and results o Electoral process o Stronger economies form stronger gender equality o Elect more women o Leadership training for women o Tribunals = open dialogues on violence to change the norm o ID cards o Violence Against Women  Physical abuse  Psychological abuse  Economic discrimination  Can’t get loans  Lower pay for the same work  Political disenfranchisement o Women in Development (WID)  Gender and Development (GAD)  Strengthen women’s autonomy economically and politically  Full citizenship  Freedom from violence in any form  Sexual and reproductive autonomy o Core vs. Periphery Feminism  Sisters in Islam  Indonesia  Don’t condemn Islamic beliefs  Use Qur’an to identify women’s rights  Use historical context to challenge customs  Use Qur’an to question authority with community’s culture norms o Current Strategies  Move away from “population control”  Quality of life and empowerment are the targets  Funding for pre/post natal care  Wider access to contraceptives  Policies that increase women’s status  Decrease violence and discrimination against women o Conceivable future  House party conversations for dialogue about having kids o Kenyan school boy article  Boys can be part of the problem AND part of the solution o US Women’s Soccer Team  Pay gap is \$5.8 million  Filed a suit against US Soccer o Maternity and Paternity leave  World map for paid leave  World map for breaks given for breastfeeding  Not just about the women, men getting time off too is as important  Swedish Dads photo series o Typhoon Haiyan  UN agencies promote breastfeeding rather than bottle feeding because of dirty water and higher nutrients  Breastfeeding in the military o UN delegation of women’s rights  Touring in the US  Evaluating  US policies and attitudes  School  Health  Prisons o Wonder Woman  Propaganda for women who should be equal and, in this man’s opinion, should “rule the world”  Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict o How do women experience conflict o Genocide  Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political or cultural group o Disadvantaged Majorities and Their Revenge  Genocide as an externality of the market  Genocide in Rwanda  “Ethnic Cleansing” in Rwanda  Economic inequalities among groups are the source of collective violence but not enough by themselves to ferment violence  Inequalities are exaggerated further by policies o Rwanda  In 1994 between 800,000 to 1 million people were killed  Majority of slain were Tutsis killed by Hutu militia  Most done by machete and small arms  Germany was the original occupier but then Belgium got control  Don’t put all your eggs in one basket  Legacy of export oriented agriculture  Coffee markets, price drops for coffee and tin  Drop in income for small farmers o Results in famine o Can’t purchase food  Elites depend on income from tin, coffee, foreign aid o Pressure to keep foreign aid  IMF imposes structural adjustment programs o Devalued the Rwandan franc o Price of fuel and necessities increased o Collapse in the education and health system o Peasants uproot coffee trees to grow food crops o Market for local food  Attacks o Fleeing Rwanda  Warning Signs of Genocide o Assassination o Death lists o Hate propaganda  Radio  Media o Demonization o Stockpiling of weapons o Civilian militia o Rape as a weapon o Who is Responsible for What Happened in Rwanda  Not simply “tribal warfare”  Hutus  Tutsi leaders (before genocide they were in power)  Colonial past (Germany, Belgium)  US  France  World Bank/IMF  Debt  Characterized as “inner-ethnic violence”  “Genocide” requires military intervention by UN so they didn’t use the term until 800,000 died o Yugoslavia 1945-1980  GDP was growing  Free medical care  Etc.  1991, Soviet Union breaks apart  Yugoslavia created by: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Macedonia  Cultural, ethnic, religious divisions are fallout of economic and political fracturing  Neoliberal reforms in 1980s  Privatization  Monetary revolution  Bank reforms  Thousands laid off  IMF and WB  Reforms and structural adjustments  Non-serbs couldn’t hold jobs, hunt, fish, be in groups of more than 3, sell real estate  Ethnic cleansing  200,000 killed  2 million displaced  Mass graves  Fathers forced to castrate sons and molest daughters o Raped and impregnated Muslim women  *video* The Wounds of War  Bosnia  Woman is brought back to a rape camp 18 years after her escape  Trauma is still present, tears  Serb soldiers raped women in these camps  Painful decisions o Conflict ended with peace accords in Dayton, OH by President Clinton in 1995  Violence didn’t end until 1997 o Rebuilding and Moving Forward  National Level  Evidence of crimes  Accountability  Objective historical record  RECONCILIATION  Individual Level  Identification of the dead  Reburial and memorials  CLOSURE  Gacaca Court System  “Justice on the grass”  Focus on confession and retribution  Public process  Addresses large # of prisoners awaiting trial  Importance of healing  Sharing stories and storytelling  People need to see change in their lives  Create jobs  Development, etc.  Women and Small Business Development  Rwanda’s HDI has improved since closure and healing  Debt relief  Assisted by renewed international attention to genocide  More recognition of women  “The Court of Women” in Hague Robbins Textbook REVIEW: Chapter 3 (Page 57): The Rise and Fall of the Merchant, Industrialist and Financier” o Bretton Woods and the World Debt  NH meeting  International Monetary Fund (IMF) = make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) = to make loans for projects  Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) = ensure free trade of commodities among countries  The “Second Great Contraction” o Bursting house bubble of 2007 o People bet wrongly that an asset would continue to increase in value o Start 1989, oil spill, loans, money in reserves o Broad Index Securities Trust Offerings (BISTROs) = took loans and shirted them to dummy corporations to sell to investors (JP Morgan did this) o Same thing with house market o Finance based on moving money and the money froze o US Trillion \$ bailout o The problem is with internal logic of the economic system, not with greed  Conclusion o Increased division of world wealth o Changes in capital organization o Increase economic globalization o Reasons for financial crises o Economies have to grow Chapter 4 (Page 113): The Nation-State in the Culture of Capitalism  Spin, Free Trade and the Role of Energy in the Global Economy o US involvement in the middle east o Iraq invasion o Role of nation-state o Manufacturing Consent: Spin  Definition  Efforts of government and corporations to manipulate the manner that polices and events are represented by mass media  Examples  9/11  Iraq war  Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction  Spin used to justify military action everywhere  Not unique to government  Spin used because of general disgust of elite in nation- states of democratic decision making  “The Crowd” by Gustave Le Bon  warned about power of the masses, emergence of spin  Bernays  “Father of spin”  Public relations  “News Engineers”, low opinion for public intelligence  Democratic realism = best to limit government by the people and to refine democracy  1930’s, depression spin, present day spin o Markets and Free Trade  Role of the nation-state  Provide corporate sponsors access to markets and resources to establish rules and laws to maximize corporate profits  Economic reforms on Iraq, given a list of demands by Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA)  No inference by democratic institutions on this matter  Free trade removing barriers (Taxes, tariffs, subsides, social and environmental laws, customs)  Barriers removed by  agreeing with each other  actions of organizations (i.e. World Bank, WTO membership)  Who benefits  Corporations  Consumers (low prices)  Wealthy nation  Who is hurt  Small farmers  Business people not in corporations  Laborers (restricted by wages and immigration laws) o Energy and Technology  Iraq invasion involved oil  Fossil fuels, global energy, price went up  US largely dependent on foreign oil, what can reduce this dependency  Maintain economic growth with energy dependant technology  Cost for accelerating food production  Technology makes everything faster  Nations fight for oil access, more conflict happens o Conclusion  Nation state created laborers and consumers to protect capitalist interests  Violence used toward resistance of integration of this  Spin, global militarization  Nation state supports consumer, laborer and capitalist used in order to make profit  Can be seen in every aspect of our culture Part II (Page 127) continued  A Primer on Market Externalities o Polanyi’s Paradox  How is it possible to get the market to perform efficiently without annihilating humans and natural substance of society  Secret life behind a cup of coffee  Wal-mart stores o Is population growth a problem Complex to understand Chapter 5 (Page 133): Population Growth, Migration and Urbanization -Demography -Demographic terms, migration, urbanization, mega cities -Impact of NAFTA and other trade agreements  The Malthusians vs. the Revisionists o Malthus said disaster was imminent but he was wrong o However, unless we take measures to reduce population growth, the planet will be ruined o Those countries with birth control prosper and those who don’t will suffer social decline—is this true o The Case of India and China  India tried family planning with little success  China raised marriage age, limited amount of children gave incentives to those who complied  Rates aren’t higher in China though  Connection with economic development and population growth may be obscured o The Issue of Carrying Capacity  Max # of organisms supported by an environment  But our culture enables us to constantly alter out diets and exploit environment for food o The Ideology of Malthusian Concerns  Do Malthusian arguments mask other concerns  Malthus focused on rising # of poor as well  Challenged by Marx who said that capitalism was to blame for poverty  Eugenic theory  Natural selection  “fitness”  People are poor due to heredity  It costs \$ to try and help the periphery  Concern for overpopulation due to migration  Malthusians may mask other more pertinent reasons for problems, diverts attention  Demographic Transition Theory -World population grew very slowly due to balance with high birth and death rates -Then came medicine and death rates declines in peripheral countries -Suggests low fertility will result from economic development -This assumes: fertility has always been high, the only way to stabilize population growth is with birth control, fertility control is viewed as modern and rational -Theory has it’s own bias o A Primer on the Determinants of the Population Growth and Decline  Fertility  Frequency of birth depends on: o Period of infertility after birth o Time between ovulation and conception o Length of pregnancy o Fetal mortality o Birth control o # of years a woman can conceive  Death  Life expectancy  Do people reproduce while alive in this period  Migration  Can affect reproductive rates o Less population pressure o Younger marriages, rising rates o Some Examples of Demographic Change  The First Demographic Transition  Prehistoric hunter and gatherers able to control fertility and adjust to conditions  French Canadians  High birth rate from early marriages led to demographic success  Ireland  Availability of land encouraged earlier marriages  Populations adjust fertility rates and adapt without modern contraception  Population Growth in the Periphery o Wealth Flows Theory o Social Implications of Wealth Flows Theory o The Question of Gender and Power o Issues of Immigration o History of Migration o The Economics of Migration o Understanding Illegal Immigration o Urbanization and the Growth of Slums  Conclusion Chapter 6 (Page 168): Hunger, Poverty and Economic Development -we used to be optimistic about ending poverty, now it’s “normal” -How do people starve in the midst of plenty -Misconceptions: -World hunger is not due to insufficient food production -Famine is the most common reasons for hunger and it’s rarely caused by food insufficiency -Hunger is not caused by overpopulation  The Evolution of Food Production: From Neolithic to Neocaloric -Why leave land where you’re making your own food to then buy food from others o From Gathering and Hunting to the Neolithic  Swidden/slash and burn agriculture simplest way to cultivate crops  Why did they switch to irrigation and plow agriculture  Irrigation is bad for soil, etc. but it gets more food o Capitalism and Agriculture  Growing importance of world trade  Food became a commodity  Growth of trade  Growth of nonagricultural workforce  Intervention of the state in food production  Reducing labor demands made agriculture more profitable  Also keeps good prices low  Causes labor to go get industrial jobs  Government subsidizes agriculture o The Neocaloric and the Green Revolution  Neocaloric = substitutes nonhuman energy for human energy  Result is called the Green Revolution  High yielding varieties (wheat, corn, rice)  New plants use more water and fertilizer  Raised oil prices  Greater use of pesticides  Livestock production lead to increased grain  Capital intensive agriculture  The Politics of Hunger -people more vulnerable to hunger if opportunities for employment decrease/wages fall/food prices rise -Understand the economic, political, social relations that connect people to food -Situations of hunger o The Anatomy of Famine  Caused by crop failtures, climatic disruptions, war  Famines result from entitlement failures NOT insufficient food  Famine in Malawi 1949 *page 178*  Children and women died  Women most affected o The Anatomy of Endemic Hunger  Denial of hunger  Social, economic and cultural factors produce hunger  Brazil 1980’s *page 180*  Death of infants due to hunger  Turn starvation into a medical problem  “Hungry body reflects nation-state”  They look for “cures” to starvation and hunger  Solutions and Adaptations to Poverty and Hunger o Economic Development  Mending massive economic and social changes  Critics says economic development fails—why  Features  Define goals and acceptable standard of living (income/GDP)  Assumes that core culture and way of life is desired universally  Power of core government over periphery  Failed development projects  Economic development is a product of high modern ideology  Tanzania 1973-1976 *page 187*  With most development schemes, authoritative states impose the programs and suppress residence  Conclusion that the major fault of the project was the planners overestimated their intelligence o The Nature and Growth of the Informal Economy  Employment is key for entitlement to goods and services  What about lack of jobs  Economic policymakers say the unemployed lack initiative  “Informal” economy  Gambling  Theft  Political corruption, etc.  Represents significant portion of GDP  Drug networks  Formal and informal intersect o The Nature and Scope of the Informal Economy of Drugs  Illegal drugs  Mainstay of global economy for 300 years  Opium, cannabis, coca  Difficult to place in global economy  Another sector that works like any other  London in the 18 century  Ginthrug  NY in 20 century  Crack cocaine  Women are a significant part of it  By criminalizing drugs only associated with marginalized population, you bring judicial authority onto these groups  Marijuana  #legalize  Conclusion o Hunger is caused by people’s lack of ability to purchase food NOT lack of food o Poverty that causes hunger is a consequence of global economic forces o Political unrest also leads to hunger o Economic policies of wealthy countries aren’t designed to help poor countries o Financial opportunities of the informal economy Chapter 9 (Page 248): Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict -Indonesia, tolerant toward ethnic diversity -Integration necessary for expansion of capitalism -Loss of culture may occur -“Isolated populations”, management of indigenous people, nutrition programs, family planning programs -This is the nation state imposing standards of social structure and family authority  The Fate of Indigenous People -Descendants of earliest populations who survive in the area and don’t control nation government of the country they live in -5% are indigenous in world population o Characteristics of Indigenous people  Differs from

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In Exercises 18, plot the given point in a rectangular