In Exercises 14, determine if the given ordered triple is a solution of the system. (2, 1, 3) x y z 4 x 2y z 1 2x y z 1
Exam 3 Study Guide 1. What is a taxon 2. What is a monophyletic group 3. Nearly all animals evolved during which time period 4. List the characteristics of animals. 5. What unicellular sister group did animals evolve from 6. Describe the differences between protostome and deuterostome development. 7. All animals are known as what 8. What is the deﬁning characteristic of eumetazoans 9. The most diverse animal phyla have . 10. Bilateral symmetry evolved around the same time as . 11. Name the 3 major clades of bilateria and describe each one. 12. What are the “big 9” animal phyla (also name the organisms in each one) 13. Describe the body plan of mollusks. 14. What is a common characteristic of all members of the clade ecdysozoa 15. Nearly half of all animal species are . 16. The clade lophotrochozoa comes from what 2 major groups 17. What are chaetae 18. About 70% of all animals are . 19. Describe the body plan of arthropods. 20. What is the only animal phyla that does not have true tissues 21. is the smallest and least diverse group of bilateria. 22. List the characteristics of chordates. 23. are the most diverse vertebrates. 24. What 3 classes make up the tetrapods 25. What are the evolutionary adaptations of vertebrates List them in order of when they evolved. 26. Over half of all mammals are . 27. Pharyngeal slits eventually develop into what body part(s) 28. Compared to amphibians, amniotes have reduced reliance on what 29. True or false: birds are reptiles. 30. Name the 3 main groups of mammals and describe each one. 31. List the characteristics of mammals. 32. What is homeothermy 33. Describe some trends in mammals. 34. What are some ways mammals make up for metabolically expensive adaptations 35. True or false: body form and function is only reﬂected at the cellular level. 36. Describe the difference between endothermy and ectothermy. 37. The 3 embryonic tissue layers give rise to what 4 kinds of tissues 38. What 2 principles inﬂuence form and function in organ systems 39. Which animal would eat more per unit body mass, a rabbit or a horse Why 40. What are 3 ways surface area can be increased 41. Describe the difference between conformers and regulators. 42. Why is homeostasis important 43. What is acclimatization 44. How is homeostasis maintained 45. What is the mechanism responsible for homeostasis and what does it do 46. Why is positive feedback not used to maintain homeostasis 47. What are 4 ways heat exchange can occur (describe each one) 48. Heat always ﬂows from to heat. 49. What are some circulatory adaptations for thermoregulation (describe each one) 50. What are some methods animals use to conserve energy (describe each one) Answers 1. A taxon refers to any level or entity of classiﬁcation (kingdom, phylum, class, species, etc.) 2. A monophyletic group includes an ancestor and all of its descendants. 3. Almost all animals evolved during the Cambrian explosion about 542 million years ago. 4. All animals are multicellular, ingestive heterotrophs with specialized nerve and muscle cells and move under their own volition at some point in their lives. 5. Choanoﬂagellates are the unicellular sister group to animals. 6. Protostome development is spiral and determinate and the ﬁrst hole formed develops into the mouth. Deuterostome development is radial and indeterminate and the ﬁrst hole formed develops into the anus. 7. All animals are known as metazoans. 8. All eumetazoans have true tissues. 9. The most diverse animal phyla have colonized terrestrial habitats. 10. Bilateral symmetry evolved at about the same time as triploblasty, the development of 3 embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm). 11. The 3 major clades of bilateria are: lophotrochozoa, which includes the phyla platyhelminthes, annelida, and mollusca; ecdysozoa, which includes the phyla nematoda and arthropoda; and deuterostomia, which includes the phyla echinodermata and chordata. 12. The “big 9” animal phyla are: Porifera - sea sponges Cnidaria - jellies, corals, anemones Platyhelminthes - ﬂatworms Nematoda - roundworms Annelida - segmented worms Mollusca - mollusks Arthropoda - insects, crustaceans, chelicerae Echinodermata - sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers Chordata - vertebrates 13. The body plan of mollusks includes a visceral mass, foot, and mantle. 14. All members of ecdysozoa go through ecdysis, the process of molting to grow. 15. Nearly half of all animal species are arthropods. 16. Lophotrochozoa comes from lophovores (feeding morphology) and trochovore larvae (larval morphology). 17. Chaetae are bristle structures made of chitin often found on the bodies of annelids and some arthropods. 18. About 70% of all animals are insects. 19. The body plan of arthropods is segmented and includes a head, thorax, and abdomen. 20. Porifera is the only animal phyla that does not have true tissues. 21. Deuterostomia is the smallest and least diverse group of bilateria. 22. Chordates have a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail. 23. Ray-ﬁnned ﬁsh are the most diverse vertebrates. 24. Amphibia, reptilia, and mammalia make up the tetrapods. 25. The evolutionary adaptations of vertebrates in order are: notochord, vertebrae, jaws, lungs, lobed ﬁns, limbs with digits, amniotic egg, and milk. 26. Over half of all mammals are rodents. 27. Pharyngeal slits become the gills or jaw. 28. Compared to amphibians, amniotes have reduced reliance on water in their reproductive cycle. 29. True. Birds fall under the class reptilia. 30. The 3 main groups of mammals are: monotremes, which lay eggs; marsupials, which have pouches; and eutherians, which are placental mammals. 31. Mammals have hair and milk produced by mammary glands, conduct sound through 3 middle ear bones (malleus, incus, stapes), and have a lower jaw made of a single denture bone. 32. Homeothermy is the maintenance of a stable internal body temperature despite external inﬂuence, and can be regulated behaviorally or metabolically. Pelycosaurs were the ﬁrst animals to display this. 33. Mammals have developed larger brains, larger and more muscles, upright limb posture, and nocturnal habits, but all of these are metabolically expensive. 34. Mammals developed heterodonty for efﬁciency in processing food, a secondary palate for an uninterrupted oxygen supply, and endothermy to make up for metabolically expensive adaptations. 35. False. Body form and function at reﬂect at all levels (molecular, cellular, tissues, etc.). 36. Endothermy is the generation and regulation of body temperature metabolically, which allows for maintaining activity in different conditions but takes a lot of energy. Ectothermy is the generation and regulation of body temperature using environmental heat, which takes little energy. 37. The 3 embryonic tissue layers give rise to connective, nervous, muscle, or epithelial tissues. 38. Body size and surface area to volume ratio inﬂuence form and function in organ systems. 39. A rabbit would eat more per unit body mass because it is the smaller animal. 40. Surface area can be increased by ﬂattening, folding, or branching. 41. Conformers change their internal temperatures with environmental changes while regulators maintain their internal temperatures with environmental changes. 42. Homeostasis is important because enzyme function can be impacted by temperature, pH, and other reactants, other chemical reactions in the body are sensitive to conditions, and extreme conditions destroy proteins and cells. 43. Acclimatization is the process by which organisms adjust to gradual environmental changes to maintain optimal or near optimal performance. 44. Homeostasis is maintained by this process: set point (optimal point)—>stimulus (departure from set point)—>sensor/control center (detects stimulus)—>response (action to return to set point). 45. Negative feedback is the mechanism responsible for homeostasis and it minimizes the effect of a stimulus. 46. Positive feedback ampliﬁes the effect of a stimulus, which would not be good for maintaining homeostasis. 47. Heat exchange can occur by any of the following ways: Conduction, which involves direct contact between solids; convection, which involves direct contact between a solid and a liquid or gas; radiation, which involves no direct contact, and evaporation, which involves a high heat of vaporization, a special property of water. 48. Heat always ﬂow from high to low heat. 49. Circulatory adaptations for thermoregulation include: vasodilation and vasoconstriction - delivering different amounts of heated blood to the skin surface to heat or cool. countercurrent heat exchange - heat in arterial blood is donated to cold blood in the veins to minimize heat loss. metabolic heat production - shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. 50. Animals can conserve energy using any of these methods: torpor, a daily state of decreased physiological activity; hibernation, a seasonal state of decreased physiological activity; aestivation, a summer hibernation; and heterothermy, a process by which endothermic animals allow their body temperatures to vary but still regulate their set point.