In Exercises 142146, use the GRAPH or TABLE feature of a graphing utility to determine if the polynomial on the left side of each equation has been correctly factored. If not, factor the polynomial correctly and then use your graphing utility to verify the factorization. 3x3 12x2 15x 3x(x 5)(x 1); [5, 7, 1] by [80, 80, 10]
Weekly Quiz 5 1. Which of the following life-history patterns may promote the development of altruism Long lifespan Early age at weaning Short inter-birth intervals Rapid growth 2. Reciprocal altruism (reciprocity) is more likely to be stable and favored by natural selection if: There is an asynchrony of abundance and "need" of time and/or resources The benefits outweigh the costs to both individuals There are many future interactions All of the above 3. What does Hamilton's Rule state That the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must be greater than the cost to the donor. That the cost to the donor, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must be greater than the benefit to the recipient. That the coefficient of relatedness, r, is irrelevant in determining whether or not to behave altruistically towards other individuals. That we should always behave altruistically towards kin, regardless of whether they are close kin or more distant kin. 4. What do the data from the Albuquerque Men Study show us Men in Albuquerque, when rearing a child who is not their biological offspring, are much more likely to raise their relatives’ children than their mate’s children. Anglos are much more likely to raise non-biological offspring who are kin than Hispanics. Men in Albuquerque are equally likely to raise related non-biological offspring as unrelated non-biological offspring, and make no distinction in their financial support of these children. Children are more likely to receive financial support for college from their biological fathers when their parents remained in the same household for their entire childhood. They are least likely to receive financial support for college from step-fathers who did not live with them their entire childhood. 5. Diminishing returns curves relate to altruism and reciprocity because: They recognize that once you give a benefit to someone else, you will never recoup the cost you pay. Individuals share because they can afford to pay that cost. They recognize that you should only give away a resource to someone else if the cost you pay outweighs the benefit the other receives. Individuals share because they want to. They recognize that all resources offer the same value to all individuals regardless of how much quantity of that resource is possessed. Individuals share because these values are identical. They recognize that the value of a resource to a given individual will depend on the amount of the resource the individual always possesses. Individuals share because the cost they pay now is less than the benefit they might receive in the future. Weekly Quiz. 7 1. What is tolerated scrounging/theft Sharing food (or other resources) because a proportion of your genes are in your close kin – you tolerate the scrounging of resources by your kin because of your relatedness. Sharing food (or other resources) because it would be quite costly to defend them – you tolerate the scrounging of resources by other individuals instead of incurring the cost of defense. Sharing your food (or other resources) because you know you may need someone else’s resources in the future – you tolerate the scrounging of resources because you know you may need to scrounge resources from someone else at a later date. None of the above. 2. Which of the following life-history patterns may promote the development of altruism Long lifespan Early age at weaning Short interbirth intervals Rapid growth 3. Reciprocal altruism (reciprocity) is more likely to be stable and favored by natural selection if: There is an asynchrony of abundance and "need" of time or resources The benefits outweigh the costs to both individuals There are many future interactions over an unspecified period of time All of the above 4. Which of the following is true about the payoff structure for the Prisoner’s Dilemma The punishment for defecting (P - both players “squeal”) is the worst possible payoff (maximum jail time in the prisoner scenario). The temptation to cheat (T – one player implicates his/her partner while the other remains silent) is the highest possible payoff (go free while the partner gets maximum jail time). The reward for cooperation (R – both players “keep silent”) is the highest possible payoff (both players get reduced sentences). None of the above 5. Which strategy to play the Prisoner’s Dilemma would yield the highest payoff over repeated rounds Always Cooperate (All C) Alternate Cooperate and Defect (CDCD) Tit for Tat (TFT) Defect Every Third Round (CCD) Weekly Quiz 8 1. Which of the following is not a major life history tradeoff Current versus future reproduction Quality versus quantity of offspring Anisogamy versus polygamy Mating effort versus parental effort 2. An organism’s life history refers to: The pattern of events experienced by an organism’s ancestors A complete description of the events experienced over the organism’s life, related to age specific schedules of mortality and fertility An organism’s ability to learn historical facts. the story of a person's life, especially when told at tedious length 3. Which of the following is not an example of a life history question How altricial or precocial an organism is a birth How fast an organism grows How many offspring an organism has each reproductive bout How much food does an organism eat a day 4. Which of the following indicates that early hominins were scavenging meat rather than actively hunting The cut marks from stone tools overlay the tooth marks from predators on faunal remains The faunal assemblages are mostly high utility, including the femur The prey profile is prime dominated, with mostly adult males present The faunal assemblages are mostly difficult or dangerous prey, including cattle and bush pigs. 5. Which of the following are we not able to infer from the fossil record Age at weaning Muscle stresses from patterns of production Cranial capacity Marriage patterns Weekly Quiz 10 1. Which of the following is not a difference between human and non-human primate diets Non-human primates eat less calorically dense foods Non-human primates eat a larger percentage of extracted than collected foods Humans eat more hunted foods Humans differentiate food acquisition by sex 2. Complementarity in parental investment: Means that mothers and fathers are polite to their children Occurs when male investment does not affect offspring well-being Is more prevalent in non-human primates than in humans Means that mothers and fathers have specialized parenting roles that work best when carried out together 3. Humans and non-human primates differ with regards to key life history traits. Which of the following is a way in which we differ from monkeys and apes Human juveniles are dependent on parental provisioning for an incredibly long time; non-human primate juveniles are self feeding when they wean. Humans have incredibly low brain size to body size ratios, while non-human primates have incredibly large brain size to body size ratios. Humans utilize low skill, low nutrient density foods while non-human primates utilize high skill, high nutrient density foods. None of the above 4. Which of the following is true with regards to patterns of human male production compared to chimpanzee production across the life course Human males begin to produce more than they consume in their teens, reaching maximum productivity around the mid 30s (and continuing through their 50s or later), while chimpanzee males never produce more than they consume. Human males and chimpanzee males begin to produce as much as they consume as soon as they are weaned, and never produce more than they consume. Both human males and chimpanzee males begin to produce more than they consume in their teens. Humans, though, produce a lot more than chimpanzees for a much longer lifespan. Though both human males and chimpanzee males produce more than they consume, neither produce near the excess of human females. 5. Which of the following is true with regards to patterns of human female production compared to chimpanzee production across the life course Human females produce more than they consume for much of their reproductive lifespan, allowing them to feed their dependent juveniles even while they may be pregnant or nursing an infant. Chimpanzee females never produce more than they consume. Both human females and chimpanzee females produce more than they consume during their reproductive careers. This amount is never enough, however, to feed more than one juvenile at a time. Human females do not produce more than they consume, but chimpanzee females do. Thus chimpanzee females are able to raise their fertility relative to humans by feeding a dependent juvenile while pregnant or nursing another offspring. Neither human females nor chimpanzee females produce more than they consume during their reproductive careers. Human females rely on other individuals to subsidize the growth of their dependent juveniles. Human females only begin producing more than they consume after menopause.