Why do cells use different enzymes to catalyze different reactions?
COM 240 Exam 3 Review Guide Definition of organizational communication Behaviors of human beings or their artifacts that result in messages being received by one or more persons Key aspects of linear communication model person encodes message>medium carries message (challenges to message transmission i.e. interference) >person decodes message>person gives feedback Frederick Taylor: communication contributions, principles of scientific management, the story of Schmidt com contributions: concentrates on micro level of org functioning (contrast to Fayol). concerned with relationship between manager and employee and the control of the individual at work principles of scientific management (theory) one best way to do every job, proper selection of workers, training workers, inherent difference between management and workers (org managers best suited for thinking, planning, and admin. tasks; workers for labor) problems of uneven work and systematic soldiering eliminated Schmidt: Henri Fayol: scalar chain, bridge, end result principles Centralization: organizations will be most effective when central management has control over decisionmaking and employee activities. contingency factors such as firm size and personal characteristics of managers and employees could influence the optimal level of centralization Scalar chain: an organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarchy and that com should be largely limited to this vertical flow i.e. move up and down organizational chart Bridge: makes connections with individuals outside group End result principles: Max Weber: bureaucracy, authority Theory of bureaucracy: “ideal type theory” doesn’t advocate a particular organizational form as best but rather lays out the features of an abstract or idealized organization of a given type Characteristics clearly defined hierarchy, division of labor, centralization of decision making and power, they are relatively closed systems, importance of rules, functioning of authority (traditional, charismatic, or relationallegal) Types of Authority: legitimate/traditional, charismatic, rational/legal legitimate/traditional power based on longstanding beliefs about who should have control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational hierarchy ex. queen of Englandhas based on age old traditions within British society ex. some organizations the president or head of board of directors may have power based on tradition of authority rather than actual abilities, actions or behaviors charismatic power based on an individual’s personality and ability to interact with followers. this kind is highly unstable, as followers may become disenchanted with the leader’s charismatic qualities can be seen in the operation of many cult organizations in which a single individual draws in followers and demands obedience through the power of his or her personality ex. political figures such as Obama or Palin and business leaders like Steve Jobs have been described as having these relationallegal power based on the relational application of rules developed through a reliance on info and expertise. power rests not in the individual but rather in the expertise and rationality that have created a system of rules and norms Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X dislike of work workers must be coerced, controlled, directed workers prefer to be directed Theory Y physical and mental effort in work is natural self direction self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed Rensis Likert: management systems, formal versus informal, linkingpin Management systems 14 1. Exploitative Authoritative fear and punishment downward communication only An informal system where people don’t like ideas develops to block management’s plans 2. Benevolent Authoritative condescending trust in employees downward communication upward com to managers informal systems still bad 3. Consultative downward com much more accepted upward com... subordinates feel free to discuss feelings with bosses informal system… 4. Participative downward and upward com accepted informal and informal systems work in uniform Linking Pin….. Climate versus culture Climate: physiological atmosphere or environment resulting from members’ perceptions and attitudes of selected events,activities and behaviors. Culture: artifacts/values evolving from basic assumptions about human nature relationships and the environment. defines: what we pay attention to, what things we mean, how we react emotionally, and what actions to take and when. Deal & Kennedy’s corporate culture: risks & feedback dimensions and four types of organizational culture Quick feedback, High risks: Tough guy/Macho you’re only as good as your last success important to buffer your “stars” reward high stakes gamblers and encourage them to put everything on the line combative you can yell, scream, argue, but don’t cry Slow feedback, High risks: Bet your Company the impact of decisions on your company made today will not be known for 10 years emphasis on planning, checking details, caution most visible ritual is business meeting Quick feedback, Few risks: Work hard/ Play hard reward the volume of sales emphasis on endurance servicetype culture where customer service comes first visible are rituals such as such…. Slow feedback, Few risks: Process few threats/reasons to change emphasis on “pushing” the product, whether paper, tractors, or people highly visible status distinctions most visible artifacts are memorandums and protecting behaviors Key vocational socialization influences parents and family, school, media, parttime work, friends Question Typology: openclosed, primarysecondary, neutraldirected, probe openclosed: yes or no primarysecondary: initial question or follow up question neutraldirected: give any answer or give directed answer probes: informational, reflective, mirror, restatement, nudging Funnel interview sequence Funnel: begins with broad, openended questions and proceeds with more restricted questions (cone). Tunnel: series of similarly framed questions, either open or closed, which allow for little probing (cylinder). Personorganization, personjob fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit) Supplementary fit job candidate possesses characteristics which are similar to others in the environment. Complementary fit job candidate brings….characteristics to an environment which they have been lacking. Behavioral description versus situational interview questioning format Realistic job preview Socialization tactics Collective vs. Individual socialization Formal vs. Informal socialization Serial vs. Disjunctive socialization Investiture vs. Divestiture socialization Priority of role elements (diagram) Reaction: Acceptance of behaviors and norms pivotal relevant peripheral rebellion no no no creative yes some someno individualism conformity yes yes yes Information seeking tactics (7) overt asking direct questions about a topic observe watch others and copy them surveillance watching others passively third party getting information by asking a third party indirect asking less direct questions about a topic disguising conversation dropping hints to guide the conversation toward a topic testing breaking the rules to see what the reaction is Core leader communication competencies Initiating structure> facilitating work> relating> representing Initiating structure planning, allocating, setting goals and expectations, sensemaking facilitating work coaching, feedback giving, encouragement, self management relating openness, supportiveness, conflict management representing upward influence, networking, managing boundaries Key leader communication behaviors (taskoriented, relationaloriented, change oriented) taskorientated clarifies performance targets and who is responsible for achieving those targets focuses on mistakes and deviations from performance standards relationalorientated emphasizes the greater good of the group and acts in ways that build respect considers the needs and aspirations of individuals and looks after the welfare of group members changeorientated obtains input from group members when solving problems develops and communicates a compelling vision for the future Performance feedback feedback basics, fairness, feedback basics specific timely comparative from a credible source perceptions of feedback to manipulate boomerang perceptions of fairness adequate notice fair hearing raters apply performance standards across employees without pressure or bias due process rater appraisal training, interview structure, rater appraisal training computerassisted training for developing action plans and structured recall methods managementbyobjectives format PAI interview structure opening evaluation info exchange goalsetting and direction pep talks closing feedback styles tellandsell relay and persuade to change tellandlisten relay and let employee respond, where are they from problemsolving identify issues and work to mutual solution communication principles 1. message credibility 2. focus on behavior not rewards 3. conversation management 4. participation 5. goal setting 6. message receptivity Organizational Life Cycle an imprecise biological metaphor to describe the birth, growth, and death of organizations Life cycle research tradition emphases growth stages and role of management Emergence versus adolescence stage characteristics Emergence stage characteristics establishment of mission by founder preparation for incorporation recruitment of members initial start up activities leading to the creation of a product or one product line Emergent stage 1. focus on product development 2. coordination is informal, decentralized, and loosely coupled 3. pursuit of niche strategies 4. power concentrated with ownermanager or partners 5. decisionmaking style: highrisk taking, intuitive, use of integrators, facetoface dissemination Adolescent stage characteristics physical features: 1 or more product lines, $1 million in assets or debts, and/or 30+ employees greater than 15% sales growth institutionalization of organizational values, structures, and procedures securing of broader base of clients and financing Adolescent stage 1. focus on maintaining production and the organization 2. coordination reflects formalization, centralization and standardization 3. horizontal integration of markets 4. power to shareholders, but modal technology determines resource sharing 5. decisionmaking style: low risk taking, analytical, use of reporting mechanisms, little facetoface dissemination Key transitions to consider –paradox of success, role of the founder paradox of success factors critical to early success lead to failure during institutionalization (process whereby new norms are overwhelmed by existing patterns of norms, values, and structures in other organizations) role of the founder vital, lifegiving force who often becomes the enemy to organizational survival Organizational learning styles (diagram) Approach to organizing, Initial performance feedback, Perceived need for change, Extent of organizational learning enactive (learning from action), (), strong, high result in greater likelihood of initial failure, but can lead to greater organizational learning and adaptation over time proactive (learning before action), (+), weak, low result in greater likelihood of initial success, but they can restrict the organization’s ability to adapt Distributive and integrative approaches to negotiation distributive confuse opponent, never let the other person know what you you really need and why, hardball tactics, winner take all integrative understand the other’s position and interests (especially the “why”), share and receive info in a balanced matter firm on limits/bottom line but creative in how you achieve your goals, winwin as much as possible BATNA Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement Key Steps in the Integrative Negotiation Process Target point preferred outcome, aspiration, the point of which you’d like to conclude negotiations Resistance point walkaway, bottom line Asking point initial offer Bargaining mix package of issues, each of which has a target, resistance, and asking points \\\ Group effectiveness (3) The group’s productive output meets the standards of quantity, quality, and timeliness of those receiving, reviewing, and/or using the output. The process of carrying out the work enhances the capability of members to work together interdependently in the future. The group experience contributes to the growth and personal wellbeing of team members. Perrow’s Task Groups grid ie task coping difficulty (left) task variability (top) Communication and Organizational Knowledge Synoptic knowledge coded,syntax, jargon Cultural knowledge accepted norms and values Improvisational knowledge how can you play with it, what to ignore, what to tweak Group Task behaviors task roles coordinator see the commonality bw dif opinions energizer intellectually stimulate group elaborator evaluatorcritic informationgiver informationseeker recorder take notes procedural technician time and location to meet Maintenance behavior encourager acknowledge praise others achievement follower compromiser accept offer compromise gatekeeper each person has been invoked in decision making process harmonizer observer observe mood of group Scanlon Plan Production committees composed of rankandfile employees enlist active participation of all employees toward all aspects of work processes and environments. Committees have authority to implement some ideas/changes. Other ideas/changes are relayed to top managements. Employees share financially in improved productivity and cost savings. Quality Circles Groups within a firm meet weekly to discuss, analyze, and solve problems common to the work group. Aim: structured mechanism for employee involvement in identifying problems and suggesting solutions. Problems: managers use information as they see fit employees become cynical and drop out QC’s feel used if actions dont follow feedback QC’s can be easily terminated by management Rational models of decision making (five stages) Formulation identify the problem Concept development identify the cause Detailing identify possible solutions Evaluation evaluate all the possible solutions Implementation select the best solution and execute it. Alternatives to rational decision making models Optimizing model not good representation copying others single solution More realistic to look as decision making as satisfacting process choose the good enough solution instead of the best one Decision makers characterized by bounded rationality try to make logical decisions, but limited by resources Fisher’s model of group development Proposed phase model orientation know each other and the problem conflict solutions are debated emergence/solution reach some level of consensus reinforcement make decisions Cycles orientationconflict ( know each other, fight each other) problemsolution (without looking at the cause) Nonrational straight to the solution Groups achieving consensus High levels of informativeness High levels of objectivity evaluate each solution based on fact and evidence High levels of orientationbehavior Low levels of opinionatedness rely on subjective feeling without facts Low levels of redundancybring up same thing over and over Low levels of selfreferential messages refer to own solution over and over Transformational vs. transactional leadership Transformational charisma individual consideration intellectual stimulation Transactional contingent reward managementbyexception Key behaviors associated to research transformational: consideration, develop/intellectually stimulate transactional: initiating structure, contingent reward, corrective actions Group presentation basics (“putting it all together,” body of speech, designing a powerpoint) Challenges to implementing planned organizational change managerial support how serious are al levels of management ownership tension responsibility/followthrough resistance to change process political behavior uncertainty employees prefer negative info to no info NETMA No One Ever Tells Me Anything Kelman’s model of attitude change Type of Attitude Change, Why, Means, Induced By compliance, obtain rewards avoid punishment, control, surveillance identification, attraction to the person, attraction, salient rewards internalization, consistent with your value system, credibility, value relevant appeals and means Rhetorical requirements of change Attract, maintain, and mold workers (i.e., followers) into an efficiently organized unit. Organizational assimilation (recruit, inculcate, develop) Build alliances, highly committed believers Secure adoption of their product by the larger social structure. Advance the organization’s mission and purpose Must react to resistance generated by the larger structure. Develop behaviors among old members Develop acceptance of the organization’s core values among those external to organization Communication in the change process Constantly review the choices for disseminating information during change process (table 10.2) Variety of communication media can be used Change agents must make decisions about whom to communicate with during the change process Unplanned change and organizational crisis Organizational crisis evolves in 3 stages 1. precrisis signal detecting, forecasting; prevention; what to do 2. crisis sensemaking 3. postcrisis reviewing unit or organizational actions what are we doing that we should not be doing what are we not doing that we should be doing what are we doing well that we should continue to do Addressing the concerns of external and internal constituencies or stakeholders Communication and leadership Effective leaders begin the framing process by having clear understanding of own view of reality and goals Pay attention to context how things will be interpreted; receiver viewpoint Use language in ways that manage meaning in powerful and appropriate ways (aka explain the big picture)