You have three plantsone C3, one C4, and one CAM plant. You also have a pH meter and a microscope. Describe how you could use only your pH meter and microscope (with the necessary supplies that go with each instrument) to identify each plant as C3, C4, or CAM.
Chapter 12- Arthropods Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda 1030 million species Dioecious (most); hermaphroditic (some) Key characteristics: o Segmented bodies Individual segments only exist during embryological development and eventually fuse into functional groups o Jointed appendages o Modified into highly specialized structures that best equip each species for their particular niche May be highly specialized and numbers may be reduced in advanced members I.e. Crayfish and grasshoppers jointed appendages have been modified into legs, chelipeds (pinchers), swimmerets, antennae, wings and mouthparts Exoskeleton o composed of chitin and protein o Secreted by and fused to the epidermis o Segments are not separate; exoskeleton is continuous with overlapping folds o Rigid is some parts, flexible in others allowing appendages to move o Provides support for body, an anchor for muscle attachment, protection from predators, impedes water loss o As the body grows inside, the exoskeleton sheds through molting Molting the shedding of a small exoskeleton and in place of a soft new exoskeleton is excreted and fixed into place before the old shell is shed o Downsides: Limits body size The larger the body inside, the thicker and heavier the exoskeleton must be to support the body weight and bear the strain of muscular contractions Large exoskeletons would be too heavy to carry around Aquatic arthropods gain some relief with constraints because of the buoyancy of water Body o True coelom Greatly reduced o Hemocoel = main body cavity Consists of bloodfilled sinuses in the tissues o Bilateral symmetry o 3 primary germ layers Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm o Segmented Open circulatory system Nervous system o Dorsal cerebral ganglia (brain) Control behavior Can continue functions such as eating, moving and copulation without a brain o Single ventral nerve cord Respiratory system o Gills in crustaceans o Book lungs in arachnids o Tracheae and spiracles in insects Excretory system o Malpighian tubules in insects Subphylum Class and Characteristics Representative Animals Chelicerat Merostomata Lack antennae and mandibles; first pair of appendages a (4 species) are chelicerae, second pair of appendages are Horseshoe crabs pedipalps, four pairs of walking legs; spiked telson and platelike gill opercula present on abdomen; marine Lack antennae and mandibles; first pair of appendages are chelicerae, second pair of appendages are pedipalps, four pairs of walking legs; no abdominal appendages or telson; primarily terrestrial Arachnida (~74,000 species) Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, tarantulas Myriapoda Chilopoda Cylindrical body divided into head and segmented trunk; (~2,500 species) one pair of legs per body segment; one pair of Centipedes antennae; poison fangs present; terrestrial Cylindrical body divided into head and segmented trunk; two pair of legs per body segment; one pair of antennae; poison fangs absent; terrestrial Diplopoda (~10,000 species) Millipedes Crustacea Malacostraca Two pairs of antennae, biramous appendages, one pair (~20,000 species) of mandibles, two pairs of maxillae; marine, freshwater Crayfish, lobsters, or terrestrial crabs, shrimp, isopods Hexapoda Insecta Body divided into head, thorax, and abdomen; three (~1,000,000 pairs of legs on thorax; one pair of antennae; primarily species) terrestrial Insects Horseshoe Crabs Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Chelicerata Class: Merostomata Genus: Limulus Habitat: Marine o Limulus commonly found in shallow waters along the Atlantic coast Primarily nocturnal Feeding: o Swim on backs to search for small molluscs and worms o Predators (carnivorous) Body: o Lack antennae and mandibles o Spiked telson extending from posterior end o 2 body regions Cephalothorax (fused head and thorax) 1 pair of chelicerae Used to hold and chew food 1 pair of pedipalps 4 pairs of walking legs to scurry along ocean floor and nestle down in sand to hide with protruding eyes Abdomen 6 pairs of spines Gill opercula Beating aids in swimming and aerates the book gills Book gills Sensory o 2 lateral compound eyes Image forming o 2 simple eyes Detect only shadows and have the ability to differentiate between light and dark Spider, Scorpions, Ticks and Mites Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Chelicerata Class: Arachnida Body: o Lack antennae o Cephalothorax bears 1 pair of chelicerae 1 pair of pedipalps 4 pairs of walking legs Feeding: o Carnivorous expect mites Feed on liquefied food which they digest externally by injecting powerful enzymes into their prey with their fangs (modified chelicerae) Habitat: terrestrial Respiratory: o Book lungs Small slits along the ventral surface of the abdomen allow air to enter a hollow compartment filled with numerous thin folds of the body wall 1 side is exposed to air, the inner layer is bathed in blood, allowing gas exchange across the thin, moist surface Centipedes Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Chilopoda Feeding: o Carnivorous predators Feed on worms and insects Habitat: o Terrestrial Body: o Multisegmented trunks with paired, jointed appendages o 1 pair of legs per segment o 1 pair of antennae on head o 1 pair of of appendages modified into poison fangs Used for defense and to subdue their prey Millipedes Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Diplopoda Slow and doctile Feeding: o Herbivores Feed on decaying vegetation Habitat: o Terrestrial Dark, moist areas under logs, stones and leaf litter Body: o Cylindrical body o Divided into 2 regions Head Multisegmented trunk 2 pairs of legs per segment A result from the fusion of adjacent pairs of segments during development to produce double segments o 1 pair of antennae o Lack poison fangs Rely on foul smelling, chemical secretions emitted through pores at the base of their legs to ward off predators Crustaceans Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Crustacea Class: Malacostraca Genus: Cambarus Habitat: o Terrestrial o Expect Cambarus are freshwater Body: o Divided into 2 regions Cephalothorax Abdomen o Biramous arrangement Reproduction: o Male crayfish have copulatory swimmerets (modified swimmerets) to transfer sperm to females’ seminal receptacle during copulation o Female swimmerets develop long, hairlike setae on the edges that attach to eggs to the swimmerets during egglaying season o Eggs broad on female until hatched o Process: Sperm is produced in testes → travel along vas deferens → go to sperm duct → transferred to seminal receptacle of female → female releases eggs through oviduct Respiratory: o Gills External; attached to walking legs at proximal juncture Reside between 2 protective pieces of exoskeleton outer lateral layer of carapace and inner chitinous membrane Muscles o Gastric muscles Move the cardiac stomach o Mandibular muscles Control motion of the mandible Feeding: o Predators Uses chitinous teeth of the gastric mill to grind food into smaller pieces for enzymes secreted by digestive gland → food moves to pyloric chamber → empties into intestine Open circulatory system: o Small white angular heart with multiple ostia o Special valves prevent hemolymph (blood) from escaping through the ostia o Blood directed out of the heart through arteries o When hemolymph reaches the tissues, it leaves the vessels and percolates through open spaces in the hemocoel o Blood returns to heart by flowing to the pericardial space that surrounds the heart through ostia Excretory: o Green glands Hemolymph is filtered by the tubules and concentrated urine is stored in small bladders and released through nephropores Sensory: o Cerebral ganglia formed by the fusion of ganglia from first 3 segments o Circumesophageal nerves (2) exit posterior margin of brain and encircle esophagus Form the subesophageal ganglion behind esophagus Result of the embryonic fusion of 5 parts of thoracic and head ganglia Past the subesophageal ganglion, the nerve cord has a repetitive, segmented appearance o Ventral nerve cord o Antennae, antennules, and compound eye External Anatomy of the Crayfish Structure Function Rostrum Pointed region between eyes demarcating anterior end of body Compound eyes Small, dark sense organs for detecting light and forming visual images Antennae Longer, paired appendages on head modified for chemosensory and tactile reception Antennules Shorter, paired appendages on head modified for chemosensory, tactile and equilibrium reception Maxillae 2 sets of shot paired appendages located on the ventral surface near the mouth used to hold food while the mandibles grind off bits and pieces to ingest Maxillipeds 3 sets of paired appendages cated on the ventral side near mouth used to manipulate food Mandibles Hard, chitinous mouthparts used to grind food into mouth Mouth Opening to digestive tract located on ventral surface of body Chelipeds Large pinchers used for grasping food and for defense Walking legs Locomotion (walking on land and crawling across stream bottom) (periopods) Swimmerets Abdominal appendages modified for swimming (pleopods) Copulatory Larger, clubshaped swimmerets used by males to transfer sperm swimmerets (male) during copulation Uropods and telson Broad, fanshaped region of body used for rapid movement and for (tail) directional control during leisurely locomotion Anus Terminal point of digestive system located on ventral surface of telson Internal Anatomy of Crayfish Structure Function Gills Respiration Esophagus Passageway between mouth and cardiac portion of the stomach Cardiac chamber of Thickwalled, anterior portion of the stomach containing gastric mill stomach chitinous teeth that grind food into a liquefied mush Pyloric chamber of Thinwalled chamber where chemical digestion of food occurs stomach Digestive glands Accessory digestive organs that secrete enzymes into the pyloric stomach to facilitate chemical breakdown of food Intestine Long tube passing through abdominal region in which nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream for delivery to the body tissues Heart Specialized, muscular chamber containing ostia (holes) to allow passive uptake of blood, which is delivered to the body tissue through arteries Dorsal abdominal Longitudinal blood vessel that distributes blood to the dorsal aspect of artery the abdomen Green glands Paired excretory organs found along the ventral margin of the head region; they release waste out of the crayfish through small pores in the ventral body wall Testes (male) Site of sperm production Ovaries (female) Site of egg production Brain (cerebral Small, radiate structure lying dorsal to the green glands; houses the ganglia) majority of neural ganglia in the crayfish Circumesophageal Branches of the ventral nerve cord that bifurcate at the base of the nerves brain and encircle the esophagus before merging along the ventral surface of the crayfish just posterior to the esophagus Ventral nerve cord Long, white “cord” located along the ventral surface of the body; contains large swellings of ganglia that handle the majority of coordination without intervention by the brain