×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Algebra And Trigonometry - 9 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 51
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Algebra And Trigonometry - 9 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 51

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

List all the potential rational zeros of f1x2 = 12x . 8 -

Algebra and Trigonometry | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321716569 | Authors: Michael Sullivan ISBN: 9780321716569 181

Solution for problem 51 Chapter 5

Algebra and Trigonometry | 9th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Algebra and Trigonometry | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321716569 | Authors: Michael Sullivan

Algebra and Trigonometry | 9th Edition

4 5 1 380 Reviews
23
1
Problem 51

List all the potential rational zeros of f1x2 = 12x . 8 - x7 + 6x4 - x3 + x - 3

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Managementof HumanResources MGMT44301 Spring2016 Dr.DeannaKolar CourseBasics • Myoffice:Krannert503 • Phone:494-3447 • Email:dkolar@purdue.edu • OfficeHours:Byappointment Textbook HumanResourceManagement:Functio, ns ApplicationsandSkillDevelopment Lussie,R.andHendon,J. (2016)SagePublications CourseAssessment • 3Exams– 90%[Examscumulative] • Attendance/Particin10%– ClassAttendance • Attendancetakeneachclass 5orfewerabsences=10% 6-9absence=5% 10ormoreabsences=0% ClassParticipation/GroupW ork • Classdiscussion • In-classgroupexerciseparticipation newspapers)and/orfailuretoparticipateingroupexercisediscussionsmaying alsoresultinpointreductions. Whatis/are HumanResources 1)“Thepeople” 2)Thepolicies,practices,andsystemsthatinfluenceemployees’ behavior,attitudes,andperformance. VariationsinhowHuman Resources aremanaged • HRv.ManagementResponsibilityforHRM • DegreeofCentralization highlycentralized à headquarterscontrolsHRdecisions highlydecentralized à businessunitheadcontrolsHRdecisions • DegreeofFormalization(rulesandprocedures) • advantageImportanceofHRM– usingpeopletocreatestrategic • StaffingofHRDepartmentwithHRExpertsversusManagement rotations Strategic Perspectives in HRM January13,2015 DevelopingHRStrategies Wherearewenow Wheredowewanttobein1,2,3,oreven5years’time Howarewegoingtogetthere CorporateStrategy Addressesquestionsrelatingtothebusinessin whichthecompanyshouldbeoperating Forexample: § Diversifications § NewVentures § Acquisitionsanddivestments § Allocationofresourcesamongthesedifferentfacetsofthe business. StrategicManagement Acontinuousprocessconsistingofasequenceofactivities: Strategyformulation StrategicPlanning Implementation Review Updating StrategicHRM Theoveralldirectionan organizationwishestopursuein achievingitsobjectivesthrough people. Stakeholders “Communityatla”ge LaborUnions Investors Managers Employees HowStrategyAffectsHRM Differentiation CostLeadership Cost Leadership u Costleadershipmeansthelowestcostof operationintheindustry. u maximizeemployeeefficiency and effectivenessthroughhighlyspecializedjobs thatrequirepeopletorepeatthesametask. HRMandDifferentiation Tomaximizeem ployeeflexibility and adaptabilitythroughjobsthatrequirecross - functionalteamstoinnovateandtrynew processesinuncertainenvironments. StrategicMissionStatement Organizationsneedtoestablishastrategicframeworkfor significantsuccess.Thisframeworkconsistsof: • avisionforthecompany’sfuture, • amissionthatdefineswhatitisdoing, • valuesthatshapeitsactions, • strategiesthatzeroinonkeysuccessapproaches,and • goalsandactionplanstoguidedaily,weeklyandmonthlyactions. SWOTANAL YSIS STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES THREATS OPPORTUNITIES PESTEL -analysis P oliticalfactors Economic factors factors Environmental S ocio-cultural factors factors Technologicalfactors GroupExercise Hypothetical : PurdueUniversityhasdecidedtocreatea satellitecampusinsouthernItaly. PerformastrategicanalysisoftheprojectusingPESTEL criteria.*Placeextraemphasisonthehuman apitalaspects. Additionalconsiderations: • Whatdoesthisstrategicchangemeanfortheemployees in termsofrequiredcompetence, motivationandvalues • HowmightthisimpactHR- relatedactivitiesandprocesses (e.g.recruiting,HRdevelopment, compensation) Have one group member write down the team’sideas. All members names should be included on that one submission. Make sure to turn in your results at the end of class. StrategicFit “Fit”– thepatternofplannedhumanresourcedeploymentsand activitiesintendedtoenabletheorganizationtoachieveitsgoals. HorizontalFit VerticalFit Acongruenceamong ThealignmentofHRM thevariousHRM practiceswiththestrategic practices. managementprocessof theorganization. VerticalFit AlignmentofHRMpractice Withtheoverallstrategic managementprocessofthefirm HorizontalFit HorizontalfitreferstothecongruenceamongthevariousHRM practices ConfigurationalApproach “HRBundles” Focusesonthesearchfordistinctiveconfgurations– arrangementof“joinedup”HRpracticesthatwhencombined willfunctionmoreeffectivelybycomplementingandsupporting eachother. SampleHRBundle BestPracticeApproach BeliefthatthereisasetofbestHRMpracticesandthattheiruse willbringaboutincreasedorganizationalperformance. Criticism:Whatmightworkwellinoneorganizationmaynotwork inanotherbecauseitdoesnotmeshwiththeorganization’s strategy,culture,managementstyle,technologyorworking practices. BestFitApproach TherecanbenouniversalprescriptionforHRMpracticesand policies.Instead,itisallcontingentontheorganization’s context,cultureandbusinessstrategy. What“fits”withthisorganization ToolsformeasuringStrategicHRM EconomicValueAdded Ameasureoftheprofitsthatremainafterthecostofthecapitalhasbeen deductedfromoperatingprofits. ReturnonInvestment A measureofthefinancialreturnwereceivebecauseofaprocessthatwedo toinvestinourorganizationoritspeople. Looksatthecostofprovidingtheprocessandcompareittothereturns receivedduetothatprocess. AreasofHRwhereROIanalysisishelpful -(training,outsourcing,benefits,etc.) HRScorecard 1) HRdeliverables-whatfunctiondoesHRperform,andwhich ofthoseservicesaddvaluetotheorganization. 2) HRsystemalignment– howsetofHRpracticesfittogether andworkeffectively 3) HRsystemalignmentwithcompanystrategy 4) HRefficiencymeasures -processofmeasuringthereturns receivedbyorganizationasaresultoftheHRpolicies LegalConsiderationsinHR Dr.DeannaKolar Spring2016 WhyUnderstandingtheLegalEnvironmentIs Important } Assistsinconsideringwhatyou“haveto”doversuswhatyou “should”do } HelpsemployeesunderstandthelimitationsoftheHRandLegal departments } Facilitateafairandhumanenvironment } Canlimitpotentialliability ◦ Whotohire ◦ Howtocompensateemployees ◦ Whatbenefitstooffer ◦ Howtoaccommodateemployeeswithdependents ◦ Howandwhentofireemployees EqualEmploymentOpportunityLaws TitleVIIoftheCivil RightsActof1964 TheEqualPayActof 1963 TheAgeDiscrimination inEmploymentActof 1967 Americanswith DisabilitiesActof 1990 StateandLocalEqualEmployment OpportunityLaws Theeffectofthestateandlocallawsisusually tofurtherrestrictemployers’treatmentofjob applicantsandemployees. • Stateandlocallawscannotconflictwithfederal lawbutcanextendadditionalcoverageto protectedgroups. • TheEEOCcandeferadiscriminationchargeto stateandlocalagenciesthathavecomparable jurisdiction. TitleVIIoftheCivilRightsActof1964 • Anemployercannotdiscriminateonthebasisof race,color ,religion,sex,ornationaloriginwith respecttoemployment. – Coverage • Allpublicorprivateemployersof15ormorepersonsfor20 ormoreweeksinthe currentorprecedingcalendaryear(42 U.S.C.§ 2000e(b)) • Allprivateandpubliceducationalinstitutions,thefederal government,andstateandlocalgovernments TheEqualPayActof1963 AnamendmenttotheFairLaborStandardsAct . }Requiresthatmaleandfemaleworkersreceive qualpay forworkrequiringequalskill,effortandresponsibility, andperformedundersimilarworkingconditions . }Wagedifferentialsare permittediftheyarebasedon factorsotherthansex,suchasa: • senioritysystem • meritsystemor • systemmeasuringearningsbyquantityqualityofproduction. ProtectedClass/SuspectClassification ◦ A group of people who have suffereddiscrimination in judicial systemo are give special protection by the ◦ The groups protectedfrom the employment discrimination by law. These groups include: • men and women on the basisof sex • any group which shares a common race religion , color, or national origin • people over 40 • people with physical or mental handicaps. ◦ Every U.S. citizen is a member of some protectedclass, and is entitled to the benefitsof EEO law. Disparate(adverse)Treatmentvs. Disparate(adverse)Impact • Disparatetreatment Intentionadiscriminationonthepartoftheemployer • Disparateimpact Apracticeorpolicythathasagreateradverseimpactonthe membersofaprotectedgroupthanonotheremployees, regardlessofintent. Disparate/AdverseImpact 4/5thsRule Theallegeddisadvantagedgroupmust haveasuccess rateof4 /5ths(80%)ofthemostsuccessfulgroup. Example: 100peopleappliedforanAccountantposition.Fiftyfemalesandfifty duringthehiringprocess,while48femalesWhatis80%of48ttest 38. - 20malesislessthan80%oftheacceptanceraothereis adverseimpact. DeterminingDiscrimination McDonnellDouglasTest McDonnellDouglasTesttoEstablisha PrimaFacie (legallysufficient)CaseofDiscrimination: Thepersonisamemberofaprotectedclass. Thepersonappliedforajobforwhichheorshewasqualified. Thepersonwasrejected,despitebeingqualified. Afterrejection,theemployercontinuedtoseekotherapplicants withsimilarqualifications. ◦ Theburdennowshiftstotheemployertoprovethatthe actiontakenagainsttheindividualwasnotdiscriminatory. DefenseofDiscriminationCharges ◦ JobRelatedness: Businesscanshowthatthedecisionwasmadeforjob -related reasons. ◦ Seniority: Formalsenioritysystemsarepermitted-mustbewellestablished andapplieduniversally ◦ Businessnecessity: Defensecreatedbythecourts,whichrequiresanemployertoshow anoverridingbusinesspurposeforthediscriminatorypracticeand thatthepracticeisthereforeacceptable.(drug testing) o BonaFideOccupationalQualification BonaFideOccupationalQualification Requirementthatanemployeebeofacertainreligion,sex,ornationalorigin wherethatisreasonablynecessarytotheorganization’snormaloperation. TheFirstAmendmentwilloverrideTitleVIIinartisticworkswheretheraceofthe employeeisintegraltothestoryorartisticpurpose.(Thisconsiderationisnot limitedtorace.) A personcannotclaimheorshehasbeendiscriminatedagainstifheor shecannotfulfillreasonable requirementsassociated withperforminga jobandthiscanaffectaperson’scompensation . ExamplesofBFOQ • Mandatoryretirementagesforbusdriversandairlinepilots,forsafetyreasons. • Advertising,amanufacturerofmen'sclothingmaylawfullyadvertiseformalemodels. • Areligiousschoolmaylawfullyrequirethatmembersofitsfacultybemembersofthat denomination, andmaylawfullybarfromemploymentanyonewhoisnotamember. • Note:Bonafideoccupationalqualificationsgenerallyonlyapplywhenthestatusis consideredreasonablynecessarytothenormaloperationofaparticularbusiness. BFOQandCustomerSatisfaction MerecustomersatisfactionisnotenoughtojustifyaBFOQdefense. (e.g.customerpreferenceforfemalesdoesnotmakefemininityaBFOQforthe occupationofflightattendant.) There may becases in which customer preferenceis a BFOQ. For example,femininity is reasonably necessary for Playboy Bunnies. Customer preferencecan "'be taken into accountonly when it is based on the company's inability toperform the primary function or serviceit offers, where sex or sex appeal is itself the dominant serviceprovided." TitleVIIandPregnancy PregnancyDiscriminationAct(PDA)of1978 • A Title VII amendment that prohibits sex discrimination based on “pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.” • If an employer offers its employees disability coverage, then it must treat pregnancy and childbirth like any other disability,and include it in theplan as a covered condition. ** Being pregnanton its own is not a disability. • time missed followingdelivery or medical complicationsduring thepregnancy canmake it a disability. TitleVII:SexualHarassment • Sexualharassment – Harassmentonthebasisofsexthathasthe purposeoreffectofsubstantiallyinterferingwith aperson’sworkperformanceorcreatingan intimidating,hostile,oroffensivework environment. • Employershaveanaffirmativedutytomaintain workplacesfreeofsexualharassmentandintimidation. Discrimination in hiring SexualHarassmentDefined } Unwelcomesexualadvances,requestsforsexualfavors, andotherverbalorphysicalconductofasexualnature thattakesplaceunderanyofthefollowingconditions: ◦ Submissiontosuchconductismadeeitherexplicitlyorimplicitly atermorconditionofanindividual’semployment. ◦ Submissiontoorrejectionofsuchconductbyanindividualis usedasthebasisforemploymentdecisionsaffectingsuch individual. ◦ Suchconducthasthepurposeoreffectofunreasonably interferingwithanindividual’sworkperformanceorcreatingan intimidating,hostile,oroffensiveworkenvironment. LegalConsiderationsinHR Dr.DeannaKolar Spring2016 SexualHarassment TwoBroadCategories } Quidproquo ◦ Occurswhen“submissiontoorrejectionofsexualconductisusedasa basisforemployment decisions.” ◦ Involvesatangibleoreconomicconsequence,suchasademotionor lossofpay } HostileWorkEnvironment ◦ Occurswhenunwelcomesexualconducthasthepurposeoreffectof intimidating,hostile,oroffensiveworkingenvironment.gan ◦ Dirtyjokes,vulgarslang,nudepictures,swearing,andpersonalridicule andinsultconstitutesexualharassmentwhenanemployeefindsthem offensive. ◦ Courtsusea“reasonableperson”testforhostileenvironment. SexualHarassment TwoBroadCategories • Inaquidproquocaseitis not necessaryforthe employeetohavesufferedatangiblejobaction towinthecase. • Theemployer(initsdefense)mustshowthatit tookreasonablecare topreventandpromptly correctanysexuallyharassingbehaviorandthat theemployeeunreasonablyfailed totake advantageoftheemployer’spolicy. SexualHarassment ReducingPotentialLiability } Takeallcomplaintsaboutharassmentseriously. } Issueastrongpolicystatementcondemningsuch behavior. } Informallemployeesaboutthepolicyandoftheirrights. } Developandimplementacomplaintprocedure. } Establishamanagementresponsesystem( immediate investigationbyseniormanagement). } Beginmanagementtrainingsessionswithsupervisors andmanagerstoincreasetheirawarenessoftheissue . s SexualHarassment ReducingPotentialLiability } Disciplinemanagersandemployeesinvolvedinharassment . } Keeprecordsofcomplaints,investigations,andactionstaken. } Conductexitinterviewsthatuncoveranycomplaintsandthat acknowledgebysignaturethereasonsforleavi.g } Re-publishthesexualharassmentpolicyperiodically . } Encourageupwardcommunicationthroughperiodicwritten attitudesurveys,hotlines,suggestionboxes,andother TooAttractive Beauty and the Beast AgeDiscrimination TheAgeDiscriminationin EmploymentActof1967(ADEA) • Theactprohibitingarbitraryage discriminationandspecificallyprotecting individualsover40yearsold. • Affectsemployerswith 20ormore employees. AgeDiscrimination AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct (ADA) AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA) ADAof1990 • Requiresemployerstomakereasonable accommodationsfordisabledemployees;it prohibitsdiscriminationagainstdisabledpersons. Whatclassifiesasa“Disability” • Aphysicalormentalimpairmentthatsubstantially limitsoneormoremajorlifeactivities. AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA) • Qualifiedindividuals – UnderADA,thosewhocancarryouttheessential functionsofthejob. • Reasonableaccommodation – Iftheindividualcan’tperformthejobascurrently structured,theemployermustmakea“reasonable accommodation”unlessdoingsowouldpresentan “unduehardship.” AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA) • Employersarenotrequiredtolowerexisting performancestandardsorstopusingtestsfor ajob. • Employersmayaskpre -employment questionsaboutessential jobfunctionsbut cannotmakeinquiriesaboutdisability. ◦ Essential(eachpersonincertainpositionmustbeabletodo)vs. Marginal(notcriticaltojobperformance ) MedicalExaminations • Anemployermaynot requireapplicantstotakeamedicalexamination before theyareofferedajob. • Followingajoboffer,anemployercanconditiontheoffer ontheapplicant passingarequiredmedicalexamination,butonlyifallenteringemployees forthatjobcategoryhavetotaketheexamination. • Anemployercannotrejectapersonholdingajoboffer becauseof informationaboutadisabilityrevealedbythemedicalexamination,unless thereasonsforrejectionar b-relatedandnecessaryfortheconductof theemployer'sbusiness. • Theresultsofallmedicalexaminationsmustbe kept confidential,andmaintainedinseparatemedicalfiles. AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA) • Employersshouldhaveup -to-datejobdescriptionsthatidentifythe current essential functionsofthejob . • Courtswilltendtodefine“disabilities”quitenarrowly . • Employersarenotrequiredtotoleratemisconductorerratic performanceevenifthebehaviorscanbeattributedtothedisability . • Employersdonothavecreateanewjobforthedisabledworker or reassignthatpersontoalight -dutypositionforanindefiniteperiod, unlesssuchapositionexists. Allentown ThreattoSafety TheADApermitsanemployertorefusetohire anindividualifsheposesa irectthreattothe healthorsafetyofhimselforothers. Adirectthreatmeansa significantriskof substantialharm. DrugAddictionundertheADA ADAprovideslimitedprotectionfromdiscriminationforrecoveringdrug abusersandforalcoholics . • Employersmaykeeptheir workplacefreefromtheillegaluseofdrugs andtheuseof alcohol. • Anindividualwhoiscurrentlyengagingintheillegaluseofdrugsisnot consideredan“individualwithadisability”whentheemployeractson thebasisofsuchse. • Anemployermaydischargeordenyemploymenttopersonswho currentlyengageintheillegaluseofdrug.s • ItisnotaviolationoftheADAforanemployertogivetests fortheillegaluseofdrugs. DiscussionQuestion Deanna Kolar Spring 2016 Job Analysis Job Descriptions (a list of what the job entails) Job Specifications what kind of people to hire for the job . (qualifications, KSAstheyshould possess). The procedurethrough which we determine the task, duties and responsibilitio efspositions and the characteristicsof the peopleto hireforthepositions DevelopingaWorkFlowAnalysis Centralizedvs.Decentralized OrganizationalStructure Centralization A function of how muchdecision-makingauthority is pushed down to lower levels in an organization;the morecentralizedan organization,the higherthe level at whichdecisionsaremade. Decentralization Thepushingdownof decision -makingauthority tothe lowest levels of anorganization 4 JobDescriptions A list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular jobentails. Key components: JobTitle Brief description of the TDRs List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty SampleJobDescription Job(Person)Specification A list of the knowledge, skills, abilities,and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must or ideally have to performa particularjob. Knowledge: factual or procedural information necessary for successfullyperforming a task. Skill:anindividual’slevelof proficiencyatperforming a particular task. Ability:a more general enduring capability that an individualpossesses. OtherCharacteristics: job-related licensing,certifications, orpersonality traits. SampleJobSpecifications SourcesofJobInformation The incumbents– peoplewhocurrently hold the positionin theorganization. Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)– published by theU.S. Department of Labor Occupational Information Network(O*NET)– an onlinejobdescriptiondatabasedeveloped bythe LaborDepartment JobAnalysisProcess Source:Fisher, Schoenfeldt,& Shaw(2006), Figure 4.1,p. 141 Phase1:ScopeoftheProject Decidepurposesof thejobanalysisproject How do you want to use the Job Descriptions Jobdesign Recruiting Selection Performance appraisal Training Compensation Decidewhichjobs toincludein thejobanalysis project. Phase2:MethodsofJobAnalysis Decidewhatdata(information) is needed At a minimum, for each job being analyzed,we need dataon: Tasks & duties performed on the job Qualifications requiredbythe job Identifysourcesof job data Jobincumbents: observation, interview, questionnaire Supervisor of job: interview, questionnaire Other sources Phase2:Methods(cont.) Select specific proceduresof job analysis Narrative Job Descriptions Collectqualitative data (nonumbers) Engineering approaches : micro-motionstudies (time & motion studies) Measurebody motions involved in performing the job. Quantitativeapproach: utilizesa compiled inventory of the functions or work activities that can make up any job. (1) Things (2)Data (3) People (4) WorkerInstructions (5) Reasoning (6)Math (7) Language Phase3:DataCollection&Analysis Collect jobdata • Get the organizationready • Reducesourcesof bias • Conducteffective interviews • Analyzethe jobdata • Report results to organization • Write the job descriptions • Periodically recheck the job data • Update& revisethe job descriptions as needed Phase4:Assessment Evaluate the Job Analysis project Continuousimprovement: learn fromboth successes& mistakes tocontinuouslyget better Did the projectfinishon -time and unde-budget If not, whatwentwrongWhatwouldyoudo differently Didyou collectthe correctinformation What additional information wouldyoucollectif you did the project over What information wouldyou notcollect Are the Job Descriptions being used as intended If not, what’smissing tomakethemuseful JOBDESIGN Dr.DeannaKolar Spring2016 WhatisJobDesign Jobdesignreferstothewaythatasetoftasks, oranentirejob,isorganized.Jobdesignhelpsto determine: • whattasksaredone, • howthetasksaredone, • howmanytasksaredone, • andinwhatorderthetasksaredone. ApproachestoJobDesign Mechanistic Approach Motivational Approach HumanFactors Approach MechanisticApproach Scientific Management Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911) • Emphasizesrationalizationandstandardizationofworkthroughdivisionoflabor, timeandmotionstudies,workmeasurement,andpiece-ratewages. • Workportionedintosmall,simplestandardizedtasksthatcanbeeasilyperformed withlittletraining. • Rinclinedtobelazy)dideaabouthumanbehavior (thatmanisnaturally Fordism HenryFord- modernmodelofmassproduction/firstmovingassemblylines,putinto operationatFord'sModelTautomobileplantin1914. Fordisminvolvedstandardizingaproductandmanufacturingitbymassmeansatapricesolow thatthecommonmancouldaffordtobuyit. - Craft-based work - Intensified Division of labor - Increased mechanization - Skilled Laborers with substantial control over - Large scale manufacturing their work conditions process Positivesandnegativesof Mechanisticapproach Does noor the “higher” needs of workers. individuals HumanFactorsApproach Designingjobsbytakingintoaccountthe physicaldimensionsofthebody,mechanical principlesthatgovernphysicalmovementsand physiology. ExamplesoftheHumanFactors DesignApproach • Designingworkprocessesandworkstationsthatprevent injuriesandcumulativetraumadisorders. • Motivatingpeopletoworksafely. • Devisingjobsthataresatisfyingandminimizementalstress. • Designingmanufacturingsystemsthatmaximizequalityand productivitywhiletakinghumanlimitationsintoaccount. • Promotingoverallfitnesswithgymfacilitiesonsitetolimit injuryandincreaseproductivityonthejob. MotivationalApproach Focusonindividualmotivationalneedsto promotejobsatisfactionandproductivity. Hackman andOldham’sJob CharacteristicModel HackmanandOldham’s(1976)jobcharacteristicsmodelidentifiesfivecorejob Characteristics: 1) SkillVarienvolvesthenumberofdifferenttypesofskillsusedtodoajob. 2)TaskIdentitiymatterofrealizingavisibleoutcomeofperformingatask. 3)TaskSignificaninevolveshowimportantthetaskistoothersinthecompany, whichisimportantinshowingemployeeshowtheworktheydofitsinwiththat doneintherestoftheorganization. 4)Autonomyinvolvesthedegreeoffreedom,independence,anddecision-making abilitytheemployeehasincompletingassignedtasks. 5)Feedbackdescribeshowmuchandwhattypeofinformationaboutjob performanceisreceivedbytheemployee. IntrinsicMotivation Core job Psychological Work characteristics states outcomes Skill Variety Meaningfulness Task Identity of work Intrinsic Task Significance motivation Responsibility Autonomy for outcomes Quality of work Low Knowledge of absenteeism Feedback actual results & turnover of work 27 JobRotation Assigningindividualstoavarietyofjobpositions. – Employeesrotatethroughanumberofjob positionsthatareatapproximatelythesamelevel andhavesimilarskillrequirements. – Whilejobrotationhasprovenparticularly beneficialinmanufacturingsettings,itcanalsobe usedeffectivelyinserviceorganizations. ProsandConsofJobRotation Postives Negatives • Reduceboredomand • Resistancetochange fatigue • Trainingcostandlosttime • Improvedmotivationand • Safetyissues retention • Administrationtimeand • Fornewerhireshelpswith expenseoffitting orientationandplacement employeesintonewjobs • Careerdevelopment(skills, experience) • Successionplanning/ Corporatestrategy JobEnlargement • Programsdesignedtobroadenjobscope. – Jobscope referstothenumberofdifferent activitiesrequiredinajobandthefrequencywith whicheachactivityisperformed. JobEnlargement “Horizontalloadingofajob” • Increasesthescopeofajobthroughextendingtherangeofitsjobdutiesand responsibilities.. • Jobenlargementseekstomotivateworkersthroughreversingtheprocessofspecialization. • Resultsinincreasedskillvarietyandincreasedtaskidentity(employeesseeawholeand identifiablepieceofwork). • Atypicalapproachmightbetoreplaceassemblylineswithmodularwork;insteadof anemployeerepeatingthesamesteponeachproduct,theyperformseveraltaskson asingleitem. NegativesofJobEnlargement • Increasedtraining– losttimeandcosts • “Jobcreep”-employeeresentment at increasedjobload JobEnrichment “VerticalJobLoading” • JobenrichmenttriestoembellishthejobwithfactorsthatHerzberg characterizedasmotivators:Achievement,recognition,increased responsibilities,opportunitiesforgrowth,advancementandincreased competence. • Thereisanattempttobuildintojobsahighersenseofchallengeand Achievement. • Verticaljobloadingentailsredesigningjobstogive: 1.Greaterresponsibility, 2.Greaterautonomy, 3.Moreimmediatefeedbacktotheindividualorgroup. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs NEED SELF- ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEEDS LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVALNEEDS “Issues” with Maslow’s Need Model 1. Businesses typically do well satisfying lower order needs. 2. Model stipulates that there are 5 needs and that the order is “fixed”. Research indicates some may only have 2-3 need hierarchy; others 5-6. The order may also be inverted and meeting needs outside of work not accounted for. 3. Model not developed from average employees. Herzberg– TwoFactorTheory(1959) Peopleareinfluencedbytwofactors: Hygienefactors areneededtoensureanemployeedoesnot becomedissatisfied.Theydonotleadtohigherlevelsofmotivation, butwithoutthemthereisdissatisfaction. Motivationfactors reneededinordertomotivateanemployee intohigherperformance.Thesefactorsresultfrominternalgenerators inemployees. Motivatorvs.Hygienefactors MotivatorFactors HygieneFactors § Achievement § PayandBenefits § Recognition § CompanyPolicyandAdministration § WorkItself § Relationshipswithco-workers § Responsibility § Supervision § Promotion § Status § Growth § JobSecurity § WorkingConditions § Personallife AttributesofGoodJobDesign • Anappropriatedegreeof • Aperceivedcontributiontoa repetitiveness usefulproductorservice • Anappropriatedegreeof • Opportunitiesforpersonal attentionandmentalabsorption relationshipsandfriendships • Someemployeeresponsibilityfor • Someinfluenceovertheway decisionsanddiscretion workiscarriedoutingroups • Employeecontrolovertheirown • Useofskills job • Goalsandachievementfeedback Job Design GettingtheRightPeople: Recruitment&Selection February4,2016 Recruitment Acontinuousprocesstosearchforandattract potentialjobcandidatesinsufficientnumbers andqualitytoallowtheorganizationtoselect QualifiedIndividualstofillitsjobneeds. Selection Identifyingcandidatesthatwill makethemostappropriate contributiontotheorganization atthetimeofhiringandinthe future.Findqualifiedindividuals withagoodfitforyourculture andtheirdevelopment. KeyStagesofRecruitmentand Selection Whodowewant Howdoweattractthem Howcanweidentify them Howdoweknowifwe’ve Whoshouldbeinvolvedin gotitright theprocess Threemainstagesinstaffingprocess 1 2 3 Identifyand Attract definethe potential Selectand position employ the requirement. employees appropriate Thisinvolvesthe Usingvarious personfrom preparationof: methodsfordoing thejob § JobDescriptions this applicants § JobSpecifications § Person Specifications RecruitmentisaContinuous Process • Staffdepartures(e.g.retirements,firings,resignations) • Changesinbusinessrequirements(e.g.newproducts, markets,expandedoperations,newtechnology) • Changesinbusinesslocation(arelocationtriggerstheneed forsubstantialstrategicrecruitment) • Promotions Whatisinternalrecruitment Fillingofjobvacanciesfromwithinthebusiness maybeakeypartofyourculture. Abusinessmightdecidethatitalreadyhasthe rightpeoplewiththerightskillstodothejob: § EffectiveTrainingandDevelopmentProgram § SuccessionPlanning § PerformanceManagementalignment Staffnoti oards,(company website),In-house magazines/newslette,Staffmeetings,Internal networks– wordofmouth ProsandCons ofInternalRecruitment Advantagesofinternalrecruitment • Providesexistingemployeestheopportunity toadvancetheircareersinthebusiness • Mayhelptoretainstaffwhomightotherwiseleave • Requiresashortertrainingperiodandretainsinstitutionalknowledge • Employerknowmoreabouttheinternalcandidate'sattributes(reducesriskofadverse selection) • Usuallyquickerandlessexpensivethanrecruitingfromoutside Disadvantagesofinternalrecruitment • Limitsthenumberofpotentialapplicants • Externalcandidatesmaybebetterqualified • Anothervacancywillbecreatedthathastobefilled…trickledown • Existingstaffmayfeeltheyhavetheautomaticrighttobepromoted,whetherornot theyarequalified/competent.Communicationtoindividualsnotselected. • Businessmaybecomeresistanttochangeortooingrown;byrecruitingfromoutside,new perspectivesandattitudesareintroduced. ExternalRecruitmentContext Searchingforcandidatesoutsidetheorganizationcantakeplacein local,regional,nationalorinternationaljobmarkets. International National Regional Local How should a qualified candidate specification be created COMPETENCIES ESSENTIAL PREFERRED Competencies might include some or all of the following: • Physical attributes (e.g. lifting ability, climbing stairs or BFOQ) • Knowledge/Experience Attainments (e.g. highest level of education completed, relevant experience, ability to supervise/manage) • Problem Solving (e.g. verbal reasoning; numerical aptitude; complexity) • Interests (social/community activities; sporting activities; professional orgs) • Required availability (e.g. ability to work shifts; full or part time; temporary) HowDoWeAttractThem • Informalpersonalcontacts/networks • Formalpersonalcontacts(careerfairs) • Advertising(newspapers, specialty/tradepublications,internet) • Externalassistance(jobcenters, careerservices,employmentagencies) Principlesof DiversityManagement • Establishbusinessprinciples&strategyformanagingadiverse workforce • Createapositiveandinclusiveworkenvironment • Promotepersonalandprofessionaldevelopment • Attracttalentthatreflectsthedemographicsofyourgeographic area,employmentmarketsandproductdistribution • Removebarriersthathinderprogressandestablishaccountability BarrierstoDiversity Examples • Limitingareasofconsideration;untrainedrecruiters • Lackofdiversequalifiedapplicantpool • Lackofdiversityatthesenior levelsoforganization • Categorizingpeopleintocertain positions • Alwaysrecruitingfromsamesource • “Golfcourse”meetings • Lackofcommunication • EntrenchedCulture EmploymentRecruitmentAgencies/ Professional (specialized)Recruiters §Mayspecializeinspecificsectors(e.g.legal,tax,research,secretarial). §Providelistofvettedandqualifiedcandidates. §Cansupplytemporaryorinterimemployees. §Mayreducetheadministrativeburdenofrecruitment. §Thecostforagencyfeeschargedistypically30%ofthefirstyear remunerationfohecandidateselected. HowDoWeKnowIfWeGotItRight • Looktoretentionrates • Promotionrates • Howarerecruitsperforming/advancingfive yearsafterjoiningthecompany EmployeeSelection Dr.DeannaKolar February9,2016 APoorSelectionProcessCanResultIn: Wastingtimeandmone yh iringamismatchwill likelyrequiregoingthroughthewholeprocessagain. Reducedproductivity– mismatchesperformtheir jobslesssuccessfullythangoodfits. Negligenthires– hiringsomeonewhoposesadanger toco-workers,customers,suppliers,orotherthird parties,whoultimatelyharmssomeoneinthecourse oftheirworkforthecompany u Thecompanycanbeheldliable. BalancingJobFitandOrganizationFit • Job-basedfitseekstomatchanindividual’s abilitiesandinterestswiththedemandsofa specificjob. • Organization-basedfitisconcernedwithhow welltheindividual’scharacteristicsmatchthe broaderculture,values,andnormsofthefirm PreliminaryScreening 1) Applicants’informationiscomparedtojobspecifications 2)Weedoutunqualifiedapplicantsandnarrowdowntothebest applicants. 3)Informationisverifiedtodetectfictitiousormisleading informationandtoprotecttheorganizationagainstnegligent hiringclaims. WhatMakesaSelectionMethodGood Testing Testsmeasureknowledge,skill,andability,aswellas othercharacteristics,suchaspersonalitytraits. • CognitiveAbilityTesting- measureslearning, understanding,andabilitytosolveproblems.e.g. IntelligenceTests. • Personality testing measurespatternsofthought, emotion,andbehavior .e.g.MyersBriggs • PhysicalAbilityTesting-assessesmuscularstrength, cardiovascularendurance,andcoordination. • IntegrityTesting- aredesignedtoassessthelikelihoodthat applicantswillbedishonestorengageinillegalactivity. Prohibited/LimitedT esting • Polygraphtests– EmployeePolygraphProtectionAct (EPPA)makesitillegaltouseapolygraph,butthereare someexceptions:jobsinsecurityandhandlingdrugs • Genetictesting– GeneticInformationNondiscrimination Act(GINA)protectspeoplefromdiscriminationbyhealth insurersandemployersonthebasisoftheirDNA information. BackgroundChecks Are neededtohelppreventnegligenthiring- • Creditchecks(disfavored– unlessthereisacloserelation totheessentialfunctions) • Referencechecks • Websearches • Criminalbackgroundchecks Criminalconvictions • HaveyoueverbeenCONVICTEDofacrime • MaynotinquireaboutARRESTS Exceptionsrelatingtoconvictions § Specificcategoriesofworkers,includingmostbank employees,securitiesindustryandcommoditiesworkers,and nuclearpoweremployees. § Manystatutesspecifythatthoseworking inschools,adultcarehomes,nursing homes,homecareagencies,andfacilities forthosewithmentalandphysical disabilitiesmay—andoftenmust—be subjectedtocriminalbackgroundchecks beforebeingallowedonthejob. ExpungedCriminalRecords Expungement isamethodforcleaningupaperson’scriminal record.Thisprocedurereopensthecriminalcase,dismissesthe conviction,andre-closesthecasewithoutaconviction. • Ineffect,thepersonisnolongeraconvictedperson. • Thecaserecorditselfwillstillexist,andtheexpungementwill appearontheperson’srecord. • Thekeyissueis:Onceaconvictionisexpunged,itbecomesan arrestthatdidnotendinconviction. DrugT estingApplicants Statelawstypicallyallowemployerstotestapplicantsfor drugs. Employermustfollowthestate'srulesaboutprovidingnoticeandfollowing proceduresintendedtopreventdiscriminationandinaccuratesamples. Forexample,anumberofstatesallowapplicanttestingonlyif: • Theapplicantknowsthatsuchtestingwillbepartofthescreening processfornewemployees(forexample,becausethejobapplicationsaid wouldberequired).ployer'sonlinejobpostingstatedthatadrugtest • Tpassingadrugtest .dyofferedtheapplicantthejob,contingenton • Allapplicantsforthesamejobaretestedsimilarly . • Thetestsareadministeredbyastate -certifiedlabora.ory LegalConstraintstoDrugTestingCurrentEmployees • Insomestates,companiescannotconductblanketdrugtestsofall employeesorrandomdrugtests;thetestingmustbefocusedonan individual: – theemployerhasagoodreasontobelievethatpersonisusing drugs – theperson'sjobcarriesahighriskofinjuryordamageif performedbysomeonewhoisundertheinfluence. • Courtshavegenerallyruledthat companiesmaytestemployeesafter anaccidentthatcouldhavebeen causedbydruguseoranincidentin whichtheemployeeappearedtobe impaired. ChallengingDrugT ests • Anemployeecanalwaysrefusetotakeaworkplacedrugtest.But,ifyouarefiredbecauf refusal,he/shemayhavelittlerecourse. • (Insomestates,youmightbedenied unemploymentbenefits ifyouarefiredforrefusingtotake adrugtest.) • Anemployerneedsonlytoshowthattherewasgoodreasontobelieveta haemployeewasa safetyhazardonthejoborthat heseemedunabletoperformtheworkrequired. • Ifyouhavebeengivenadrugtestandunfairlysuspendedordemotedbecauseofianemployee mayargue thatthetestersdidnotmeetwiththestrictrequirementsforformandprocedureset outinyourstatelaw. • Employersarefreetoaddsafeguardstoprotectagainstspecimentampering—requiringthose takingthetesttoremovetheirownclothinganddonhospitalgowns,orprovidingatestmonitor whochecksthetemperatureoftheurineandaddsdyetotoiletwater,asexample.s • Mostcourtshavefounditreasonabletohaveamonitorlistenasaurinetestisadministered,a numberhavefounditanunreasonableinvasionofprivacyforthemonitortowatch. Reasonablesuspiciontotest Areasonablesuspicionofdrugusemustgenerallybebasedonactualfactsandlogical inferences,suchas: • directobservationofdruguseoritsphysicalsymptoms,includingslurredspeech,agitated orlethargicdemeanor,uncoordinatedmovement,andinappropriateresponsesto questions • abnormalconductorerraticbehaviorwhileatwork,orsignificantdeteriorationinwork performance • areportofdruguseprovidedbyareliableandcrediblesourcethathasbeenindependently corroborated • evidencethattheemployeehastamperedwithcurrentdrugtestresults • informationthattheemployeehascausedorcontributedtoanaccidentatw ork • evidencethattheemployeehasused,possessed,sold,solicited,ortransferreddrugswhile workingoratwork. **Inaddition,manylawsrequireemployerstomaintainworkplacecounselingandoutreach programsbeforetheycantestemployees. JobInterviews TypesofInterviews Structuredinterview– allcandidatesareaskedthe samelistofpreparedquestions. ofquestionsbutalsoasksunplannedquestions.list Unstructuredinterview– interviewer hasno preplannedquestionsorsequenceoftopics. • Isthemostsusceptibletodiscriminationclaims becauseintroducesthemostinterviewerbias. TypesofQuestions Closed-ended – requires alimitedresponse(e.g., yes/no);isappropriateforfixedaspectsofthejob. Open-ended – requires adetailedresponse; is appropriatefordeterminingabilitiesandmotivation. Hypothetical – requirescandidatest odescribewhat they’ddoandsayinagivensituation; isappropriatein assessingcapabilities. Probing – requestsclarification; sappropriatefor improvingtheinterviewer’sunderstanding. CanAskCan’tAsk CanAsk Can’tAsk CanAskCan’task Applications,SkillDevelopmentbyRobert 22 N.LussierandJohnR.Hendon©2012 ProblemstoAvoidDuringthe SelectionProcess • Rushing • Stereotyping • Haloandhorneffects • “Likeme”syndrome HornandHaloEffect HaloEffect HornEffect Ifsomeonehasan Alsocalledthe"DevilEffect” outstandingcharacteristic andweallowourpositive Ifapersonseems particularlylackinginone reactiontosingle keytrait,thenthatperson characteristictoinfluence willoftenbeassumedtobe totaljudgmentofthe deficientinmanyother individual. traits. Hiring • Comparecandidates’qualifications. • Identifywhethertheyreallywanttodothejob. • Analyzewhether theyhavebeenhonest. • Assessperson -organizationfitviacoworkers’impressions. • Considerdiversity. • Contactthebestcandidate andofferthejob. • Ifthecandidaterefuses,oraccepts butsoonleaves,offerthejobtothe next-bestcandidate. HumanResourceDevelopment Training,Learningand TalentManagement This image cannot currently be displayed. Dr.DeannaKolar Spring2016 DefinitionofHumanResource Development Asetofsystematicandplanned activitiesdesignedbyan organizationtoprovideits memberswiththenecessaryskills tomeetcurrentandfuturejob demands. HRDFunctions • Traininganddevelopment(T&D) • Organizationaldevelopment • Careerdevelopment Reasons: • Changingworkforcedemographics • Competinginglobaleconomy • Eliminatingtheskillsgap CommonMethodsof EmployeeDevelopment FormalEducation – coursesanddegreeprograms. Experience – job-relatedexperiences,e.g.,jobrotation. 4 Employee assessmentsandPsychologicalAssessments – revealemployee’sstyleofthinking,interact withothers,and manage,viewsonleadership.e motions.Assesspotentialto Emotionalintelligenceassessments – revealhowemployees identify,understandanduse theiremotionsandotheo promoteworkingrelationships. RelationshipBetweenHRMandHRD ofthefunctionswithinHRM(HRD)isjustone HRM TrainingandCompetencies Thetypeoftrainingofferedis basedonthe competenciesemployeesneedtohaveinorder toperformtheirjobssuccessfully. Competencymodels– identifytheknowledge, skills,andabilities(KSA)neededinorderto performaparticularjobintheorganization and thetypesoftraininganewemployeeorone whochangesjobswillneed. WhenisTrainingNeeded • Newemployeeorientation– theprocessofintroducing newemployeestotheorganizationandtheirjobs. • Fornewjobrequirementsorprocesses. • Remediation- thecorrectionofa deficiencyorfailureinaprocessor procedure. • Employeedevelopmentfor advancement. ATrainingCyclebasedonanHRDplan OrganizationalStrategy HRMstrategy TrainingandDevelopment Strategy AnalysisofNeeds DesignofTrainingProgram MonitorandEvaluate DeliveryofTraining NeedsAssessmentPhase • EstablishingHRDpriorities • Definingspecifictrainingandobjectives • Establishingevaluationcriteria DesignPhase • Selectingwhodeliversprogram • Selectinganddevelopingprogram content • Schedulingthetrainingprogram WHO WHAT WHEN EvaluationPhase Determiningprogrameffectiveness: • Keeporchangeproviders • Offeritagain • Whatarethetruecosts • Canwedoitanotherway Whentrainingisnotdonecorrectly: • Atrainingcoursemaybepoorlydesigned(e.g.,coverthewrong information). • Thewrong(e.g.,not-yet-ready)employeesmayparticipate. 1 • Trainersmaycreateprogramsthatareunnecessaryorincomplete. ChallengestotheTrainingProcess ReturnonInvestment/CostJustification – training istimeconsumingand expensive. Resistancetochangeandemployeei nsecurity. 1 Strategiccongruence– justifyingthetrainingby ensuringthatitfurthers thestrategicgoalsof theorganization. Scheduling – timingtrainingtominimize problems. ChallengestotheTrainingProcess(continued) Employee Readiness • Ability – doemployeespossesstherequisiteeducationalbasics tosuccessfullyparticipate nthetrainingprocess • Self-efficacy– dotheemployeesbelieve theyhavethe 1 capabilitytodosomethingorattainaparticular goal • Willingness–aretheemployeeswilling(motivated) tolearn what'sbeingtaughtinatrainingprogram ShapingBehavior – Methods Positivereinforcement – providearewardinreturnfora constructiveaction. Negativereinforcement– thewithdrawalofaharmfulthing in 5 responsetoapositiveaction. 1 Punishment – theapplicationofanadverseconsequenceor removalofareward,inordertodecreaseanunwantedbehavior. Extinction– thelackofresponse,positiveornegative, inordertoavoidreinforcinganundesirablebehavi. LearningStyles (HoneyandMumford,1992) Activists Reflectors learn best when actively learn best when reviewing involved in the task and reflecting on what has happened and what they have done Theorists Pragmatists learnbestwhentheycan learnbestwhentheysee relatenewinformationto relevanceofnewinformationto conceptsortheories reallifeissuesorproblems. On-The-JobTraining(OJT) Isdoneattheworksitewiththeresourcesthe employeeusestoperformthejob. JobInstructionalTraining –isaverysuccessful OJTfour-stepmodel: 1. Preparationofthetrainee. 2. Presentationofthetaskbythetrainer . 3. Performanceofthetaskbythetrainee. 4. Follow-up. On-The-JobTraining(OJT) Advantages Disadvantages • One-to-onetrainingisexpensive. • Trainingcanbeimmediatelytransferredto thejob. • Trainersmaynotknowhowtoteach,may • Trainingoccursontheactualjobsiteand beunmotivatedormaytransfertheirown includesallincidentalfactorsassociated badhabits. withthejob. • Thetrainingmaybeinconsistentunless • Thetrainingenvironmentisinteractive, trainersfollowastandardizedtrainingplan. withfeedbackfromthetrainer. • Thetraineristypicallyhighlycompetentin• Iftheequipmentisexpensive,itmaybe doingthejob. dangeroustohavethetraineeoperateand potentiallyharmitsincetheyarenotyet • Theinstructorcancustomizethetraining skilledoperators. tothetraineesneeds. • Oftendisruptstheworkenvironment. ClassroomTraining Advantages Disadvantages • Providesconsistentknowledgeorinformation • Oftenapassiveenvironment,wherethe toafairlylargenumberofpeopleabouta learnerabsorbstheinformationprovided. generaltopic. • Manystudentscanbetrainedatthesametime. • Paceofthetrainingmaybetoofastfor somestudentsandtooslowforothers, • Informationprovidedtotraineesistypically causinganxietyorboredom. moreconsistentthanOJT. • Itismoredifficulttocatertodifferent • Instructorsareusuallyprofessionaltrainers. learningstylesinaclassroomsettingthan byusingOJT. • LessexpensivethanOJTduebecauseit'sone - to-manytraining. • Questionandanswersessionsaresomewhat interactive. • Doesnotdisrupttheactualworkenvironment. DistanceorE-LearningAdvantages Advantages Disadvantages • Trainingmaybeavailable24/7/365. • Traineesrequireselfdiscipline. • Studentscanlearnattheirownpace. • Trainermaynotresponddirectlyto studentneedsandquestions. • Noneedforaphysicalclassroom orforan instructortobeavailableataparticular• Oftenlacksimmediatefeedbackon pointintime. traineesuccess/failure. • Notimelostduetocommuting. • Highinitialsta-upcostsduetotheneed tocreatevoluminousonlinematerials. • Providingmultiplemediacanenhance thelearningprocessbymatchingup • Studentdishonestyismoredifficultto traineeswithdifferentlearningstyles. identify,andtestingusuallyhastobe openbook. • Reasonablylowcostmethodtotrainover time. • Lackofsocialinteractioncaninhibit • Doesnotdisrupttheactualwork learninginsomefields. environment. SimulationsAdvantages Advantages Disadvantages • Lowriskmethodoftrainingindividuals • Canbecome‘avideogame’andnotbe onhowtoreacttoacomplexsituation. takenseriously. • Realismallowsconvincingemulationof • Systemsmaybeveryexpensivetocreate actualphysicalsituations. and/ormaintain. 1 2 • Allowsstudentstotryoutexperimental • Complexcomputer -basedsimulations solutionstoaproblem;ifthesolution mayrequireaverypowerfuland fails,thesimulationcanbereset. expensiveprocessorinordertorunthe application. • Resultsofstudents’actionscanbe analyzedposthoctodeterminewhether • Someprocessescannotbesimulated arenotdifferentactionsmayhavebeen successfullyduetoalackofknowledge moresuccessful. ofthedetailsoftheprocess. • Doesnotdisrupttheactualwork environment. CareerDevelopment/T alentManagement Firmsmakecareerpathsandcareercounseling availablesoemployees: • Canachievepersonalgoalsoverthecourseof theircaree. • Aremoremotivated,whichcanleadto improvedproductivityandjob satisfaction,and lowerabsenteeismandt urnover. OrganizationalDevelopment Theprocessofimprovinganorganization’seffectiveness andmember’swell-beingthroughtheapplicationof behavioralscienceconcepts • Focusesonbothmacro- andmicro-levels • HRDplaystheroleofhangeagent TheBoundaryless Career BEFORE:Careerstraditionallytookplacewithinorderly,“paternalistic” employmentarrangementswithinthesamecompanyfortheentire career NOW:individualshavelessboundarieswiththeircareerscrossing betweendifferentorganizations,homeandwork. Performance Management andAppraisal Dr.DeannaKolar Spring2016 PerformanceManagementvs. PerformanceAppraisal • Performancemanagement is theprocessofidentifying, measuring,managing,and developingtheperformance ofhumanresources. • Performanceappraisal isthe ongoingprocessofevaluating employeeperformance. 2 PurposesofPerformanceAppraisal Systems EmploymentDecisions Diagnosisof EmployeeFeedback OrganizationalProblems PurposesofPerformance AppraisalSystems Criteriaintest Objectivesfor validation TrainingProgram 3 ThePerformanceAppraisalProcess AccuratePerformanceMeasures u Validandreli-lonsistencyofjudgment u Acceptable-musthavesupportofthosewhowillusethem u Feasibleandpractical u Specific u Sensitive– i.e.candistinguishbetweenineffectiveandeffectiveworkers u Basedonthemissionandobjectives WhyConductPerformance Appraisals u Communicateemployee’sperformancestrengthsand improvementneeds: managersandemployeesshouldhavea formal-wayconversationthatallowsemployeestorespond. u Makeemployment-relateddecisions: managerscanuse objectivecriteriatodecideemployeeraises,promotions, demotions,training,development,termination. u Motivate—Develop:managersandemployeescandiscuss toolsandopportunitiesthatcanhelpemployeesimprove theirperformance(andtherebyimproveorganizational performance). RankingMethods u Managerranksagroupofemployeesby makingcomparisonsfrombesttoworst. uTypicallyusedforevaluativedecisionmaking anddevelopment. ForcedRanking • Relativecomparison: Anappraisalthatcomparesemployees againsteachother,forcingsometoberatedaboveothers,such as,"HowdidJoedocomparedtoSallyandBob“ • Absolutecomparison:Aconventionalperformanceappraisal, suchas,"HowwelldidJoedoagainsttheresponsibilitiesand goalssetatthebeginningoftheyear “ • Forceddistribution:Anappraisalthatdoesnotcomparepeople againsteachotherbutgivesemployeesratingssuchas "excellent,""good,"or"needsimprovement."Asetnumberor percentageofworkersmustfallintoeachcategory. RankandY ank FormsofAppraisal GraphicRatingScales Managerusesan appraisalchecklistto rateemployee performanceona continuum,often expressedasa numericalscale. CriticalIncidentsMethod Managerrecordsexamplesoftheemployee’seffectiveandineffectivebehavior duringthetimeperiodbetweenevaluations,whichisinthebehavioralcategory. • Thedisadvantageofthismethodisthetendencytorecordonlynegative incidentsinsteadof positiveones. • Thismethodcanworkwellifthemanagerhasthepropertrainingtorecord incidents(perhapsbykeepingaweeklydiary)inafairmanner. BehaviorallyAnchored RatingScales(BARS) Combineselementsfrom criticalincidentandgraphic ratingscaleapproaches. Managerusesaspecific behaviorally-based continuumtorateemployee performance. Thecontinuumisoften expressedasanumerical scale. NarrativeMethod u Manager

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 5, Problem 51 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 9
Author: Michael Sullivan
ISBN: 9780321716569

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 51 from chapter: 5 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/23/17, 05:02PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 107 chapters, and 8650 solutions. Algebra and Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321716569. Since the solution to 51 from 5 chapter was answered, more than 237 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “List all the potential rational zeros of f1x2 = 12x . 8 - x7 + 6x4 - x3 + x - 3” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 22 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry, edition: 9.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

List all the potential rational zeros of f1x2 = 12x . 8 -