Newton’s Law of Cooling/Warming As shown in Figure 3.3.11, a small metal bar is placed inside container A, and container A then is placed within a much larger container B. As the metal bar cools, the ambient temperature TA(t) of the medium within container A changes according to Newton’s law of cooling. As container A cools, the temperature of the medium inside container B does not change significantly and can be considered to be a constant TB. Construct a mathematical model for the temperatures T(t) and TA(t), where T(t) is the temperature of the metal bar inside container A. As in Problems 1 and 18, this model can be solved by using prior knowledge. Find a solution of the system subject to the initial conditions T(0) = T0, TA(0) = T1.
Chapter 3: Water and Life 3.1. Polar Covalent Bonds in Water Molecules Result in Hydrogen Bonding ● Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. ○ This results in the electrons in water molecules spending more time with the oxygen than the hydrogen ● Water’s unequal sharing of electrons make it a polar molecule. The overall charge is unequally distributed. ○ Polar molecules can characteristically have a V-shape. ● Oxygen has a partial negative charge and hydrogen has a partial positive charge ○ Slightly positive hydrogens are attracted to the oxygens of other water molecules, resulting in a Hydrogen Bond. ■ Individual H-bonds are weak af and also break frequently but molec