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In Exercises 18, find the mean for each group of data

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321758941 | Authors: Robert F. Blitzer ISBN: 9780321758941 177

Solution for problem APPENDIX A 3 Chapter APPENDIX A

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition

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Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321758941 | Authors: Robert F. Blitzer

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students | 4th Edition

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Problem APPENDIX A 3

In Exercises 18, find the mean for each group of data items. 91, 95, 99, 97, 93, 95

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1. “Euthyphro” is a dialogue between two characters, Socrates and Euthyphro. The dialogue takes place outside a courthouse, where Socrates is about to be a defendant in a trial. What does Socrates stand accused of Corrupting the Youth 2. Which of the following is the most plausible reason why Plato might have written dialogues as opposed to treatises The Greeks mistrusted writing in roughly the way we mistrust the internet—they thought this new technology would make people intellectually lazy. So Plato tried to write in a way that demanded the reader’s active engagement. 3. All emeralds are green. That is, they all share at least once essential property: the color green. According to Plato, where is the single green property all emeralds share There is an eternal, unchanging realm—almost like a parallel universe— where the most perfect version of the color green resides. 4. At 5e, Euthyphro offers a definition of piety: “I say that the pious is to do what I am doing now, to prosecute the wrongdoer .... Not to prosecute the wrongdoer is impious.” Why does Socrates eventually reject this particular definition Euthyphro has given merely one example of piety, not an account of what single characteristic all pious acts have in common. 5. How does the dialogue end With Euthyphro unable to give a definition of piety that satisfies Socrates 6. Which one of Euthyphro’s attempted definitions of “Piety” has come to be identified with divine command theory Piety is doing whatever is dear to all the Gods. 7. Here is one way to understand Socrates’ argument against Euthyphro’s attempt to define “Piety” as whatever is dear to all the gods. i. The Gods love actions because they are pious. ii. Suppose “pious” = God­loved. [This is just Euthyphro’s attempted definition of “piety”] iii. Then the Gods love actions because they are God­loved. [from i and ii] QUESTION: What point does Socrates make in the final step in his argument Socrates points out that claim iii doesn’t make sense­­it's like saying that the reason I love papayas is that papayas are things that I love. 8. At 6e, Socrates says he wants to know the “form” or “model” of piety. What does he mean Socrates wants an account of piety that he can use as a general standard. He wants to be able to tell whether any arbitrary act counts as pious. 9. In Meditation I, Descartes says he will suppose that the world was created not by a loving God, but by “an evil genius.” Why does he make this assumption Because he is trying to sweep away all his former beliefs in order to rebuild them on secure foundations. 10.In Meditation II, Descartes discusses the properties of a piece of wax. What does he do to the piece of wax He melts it in the fire. 11.Which one of the following events caused Descartes to suppress (i.e., not publish) a large portion of his own scientific research Galileo was placed under house arrest and forced to recant his commitment to Copernicanism (i.e., to the hypothesis that the sun is the center of the solar system). 12.Which one of the following claims SURVIVES the dream hypothesis In other words, which of these claims could the Meditator know to be true even if he can't tell whether he's asleep right now (Note 1: remember that the dream hypothesis is not quite as extreme as the evil genius hypothesis. Note 2: in all of the following, assume that the Meditator himself is the speaker, so that "I" refers to the Meditator.) 2 + 2 = 4 13.In the Second Meditation, Descartes offers his cogito ergo sum argument—I think therefore I am. The argument would still work if one replaced the phrase “I think” with any of the following EXCEPT which one (Again, in all of the following, assume that the Meditator is the speaker, so that “I” refers to the Meditator himself.) I have a brain. 14.On p. 53 of the Meditations, Descartes writes: “And let him do his best at deception, he will never bring it about that I am nothing so long as I shall think that I am something.” Which of the following best reflects the conclusion that Descartes wishes to establish in this passage An evil, deceiving demon might or might not exist; nevertheless, whenever I entertain a thought, it is certain that I exist. 15.At the end of Meditation 3, the Meditator considers a potential “difficulty” concerning “his parents.” Why do his parents present a difficulty He has an idea in his head of a perfect God, and he wants to know whether this is an idea he could have acquired directly from his parents. 16.Consult the following argument in answering questions 1 and 2.i. There must be at least as much reality in a cause as in an effect. ii. There must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as there is objective reality in the idea itself.iii. I have an idea of an all­knowing, infinitely powerful and good God. iv. This idea of God has infinite objective reality.v. So something with infinite formal reality must have caused me to have this idea of a perfect God.vi. I myself am a finite creature—so I have only finite formal reality, and can’t have caused my idea of God.vii. CONCLUSION: There must exist an infinitely perfect God, because only such a being could have caused my idea of God. How does Descartes know that claim iii is true By introspection 17. Premise (ii) follows logically from which other premise (i) 18. Which of the following is true of the relationship between the podium in our classroom and your own idea of that podium Your idea has as much objective reality as the podium has formal reality. 19. Hume makes a distinction between two sorts of things we can think of—what he calls “impressions” and “ideas.” What is the relationship between impressions and ideas Ideas are faint copies of more lively impressions. 20. On p. 181, Hume writes: "The bread which I formerly ate nourished me—that is, a body of such sensible qualities was, at that time, endowed with such secret powers. But does it follow that other bread must also nourish me at another time and that like sensible qualities must always be attended with like secret powers The consequence seems in no way necessary." Which of the following is the best paraphrase of this passage I know that eating bread has caused me to feel less hungry in the past. So I expect that if I eat bread in the future, the bread will cause me to feel less hungry; but this is not necessarily the case. 21. Some commentators think Descartes’ causal argument for God’s existence is open to a serious objection. Which of the following best describes that serious objection By the end of Meditation 2, Descartes has not established that logic is reliable. But he cannot know that his causal argument is valid unless he can rely on logic. 22. In the Fourth Meditation, Descartes offers an account of errors of judgment. According to this account, who bears responsibility when I make an error of judgment I bear the responsibility myself, since I freely made the mistaken judgment. 23. Which of the following best describes Descartes’ and Hume’s views on the relative importance of a priori and a posteriori knowledge Descartes believes that a priori knowledge is more fundamental, while Hume thinks a posteriori knowledge is more fundamental. 24. Consider these statements: 1. This apple on my desk is red. 2. No shape can be both a square and a triangle. 3. Yesterday it was over 55 degrees in Long Beach. Which one of these is known as a posteriori 1 and 3. 25. Suppose I see my neighbor’s bedroom light on, and I infer that she is home. What am I doing Reasoning about matters of fact. ­A philosophical definition is a definition that tells us what all objects of a given kind have in common. An account of some concept that tells us whether any given object falls under the concept. Such a definition tells us the ESSENCE. Forms – essences all have perfect exemplars or models that really exist. Socrates calls forms the paradox of properties. ­Euthphyro’s definition of piety: Piety: Acts are simply right because god commands them but admits that there must be some one respect in which all pious acts are similar. 1) What I am doing now! Socrates objects: this is an example, not a philosophical definition. 2) What is dear to the gods. Socrates objects: some acts are loved by some gods, but not others. 3) What is dear to all the gods. 4) The "pious is the part of the just that is concerned with the care of the gods, while that concerned with the care of men is the remaining part of justice." ­Divine Command Theory­ dear to all the gods, acts are right simply because God commands them 1) One doesn’t love some thing simply because that thing is the object of one’s love; one loves something because of the thing’s properties. 2) So the gods love some actions because those actions have some lovable property­ namely the property of being pious. 3) But, then we can't define a "pious" act as an act that the Gods love, because then we will be saying that the Gods love things simply because those things are simply the objects of their love. 4) He thinks it is absurd to think that humans could be of service to the Gods and he gets Euthyphro to agree with this. ­Descartes’ historical context: 1596­1650..achieved fame at the age of 23 for showing how to use algebra to solve problems in geometry. Works on The World (a scientific treatise) until a famous event in the history of science shakes the world in 1633.  event: Galileo’s condemnation by the Catholic Church in 1633. Descartes then suppresses his work. In 1637, he tests the waters by presenting the philosophical underpinning of his science in the discourse on method. Mind/soul separate from body. God exists ­Main goals of 1 and 2 meditations: 1 goal of meditation = attempts to cast systematic doubt on all things we usually take ourselves to know. Skeptical Hypothesis/Doubt: 1) senses can’t be trusted/knocks out beliefs about details concerning objects around us 2) I could be dreaming/ knocks out scientific knowledge (physics, astronomy medicine) 3) an evil demon could be nd deceiving me/knocks out God, math, and logic. 2 goal of meditation: Cogito Ergo Sum = I think, therefore I am. 1) I exist. 2) My essence is that I am a thinking thing­ something that doubts, believes, wills, thinks, etc. Thought is a part of my essence. 3 goal of meditation: Establishes the existence of a perfect God, who would not systematically deceive us about what we think we know. 4 th goal of meditation: Establishes the reliability of scientific knowledge. ­Formal reality – the amount of perfection a thing has in itself. (All things possess some form of reality) Objective reality – the amount of perfection an image or idea has in virtue of what it represents. Whatever has more perfection has more formal reality. ­Descartes argument for God’s existence conclusion: You couldn't have an idea of an infinitely perfect God unless such a God really existed. You are not perfect enough to create an infinitely perfect idea! (That which is more perfect is real). ­Cartesian Circle: the meditator is reasoning in a circle. The mediator cannot know that logic is reliable until he proves that God exists. But he can’t prove that God exists without relying on logic! Descartes responds: Maybe the entire argument is not a serious of logical steps but one very clear long idea (LAME) ­The problem of error aka “problem of evil”: looks like evil to us may to required for the sake of a more perfect universe. Perhaps more human error, like human evil, is required for a more perfect universe because of two sources: our ability to know/judge and act freely (free will). ­ Importance of reason vs experience and knowledge (Descartes): knowledge: I can be certain that my mind exists. I cannot be certain my body exists. ­Priori – gained through rational reflection. Posteriori­ gained through sense/perception. Descartes thinks priori knowledge is more fundamental and Hume thinks posteriori knowledge is more fundamental. Rationalism – only what we can justify a priori counts as genuine knowledge.  Empiricism replace priori as posteriori. ­Basic Furniture of the mind: impressions vs ideas. Impressions: what you are seeing, hearing, feeling, hoping, loving etc..right now (your present experiences) Ideas: remembered sights, sounds, feelings, etc.. He claims that all ideas are copied from impressions and that many of our ideas are complex, and can be resolved into aggregations of simple ideas. ­Copy Principle – all simple ideas are faint copies of simple impressions; simple ideas exactly resemble the simple impressions they copy. No innate ideas, all ideas come from experience (Hume) ­Missing shade of blue – The copy principle says that the imagination cannot create any ideas that were not originally sense impressions. ­Importance of reason vs experience and knowledge (Hume): Reasoning about matters of fact and relations between ideas. Matters of fact: inferring the cause from the effect; reasoning works through learned experience. Relations between ideas: Drawing a valid conclusion based on the meanings involved. ­Validity and soundness: validity – If all premises are true, then conclusion must be true. Soundness – Argument that is valid and has all true premises. ­Problem of Induction: It is still possible that the next time something different will happen. It seems defective but must use to survive in this world. Cannot be justified using logic alone and cannot be fully justified appealing to experience. ­Circular reasoning – argument assumes truth of its own conclusion ­Deductive vs Inductive reasoning: Inductive arguments are generalizations. They draw general conclusions based on observations about particular cases. They can never be valid and start from particular cases and try to establish general principles. Deductive arguments start from general principles (like All men are mortal) and try to establish a particular fact with certainty: 1) All men are mortal. 2) Socrates is a man. 3) Socrates is mortal. ­Which of the following claims commits the is/ought fallacy A study of 10,000 adults left alone in a room with a jar full of candy meant for children finds that the majority steal a piece of candy anyway. Researchers conclude that stealing very small items is morally justified,

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Chapter APPENDIX A, Problem APPENDIX A 3 is Solved
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Textbook: Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students
Edition: 4
Author: Robert F. Blitzer
ISBN: 9780321758941

Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321758941. The answer to “In Exercises 18, find the mean for each group of data items. 91, 95, 99, 97, 93, 95” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 18 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory & Intermediate Algebra for College Students, edition: 4. Since the solution to APPENDIX A 3 from APPENDIX A chapter was answered, more than 244 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: APPENDIX A 3 from chapter: APPENDIX A was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:54PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 119 chapters, and 11220 solutions.

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In Exercises 18, find the mean for each group of data