Considering your answer to Exercise 65, which type of formula, empirical or molecular, can be obtained from elemental analysis that gives percent composition?
Exam 4: April 11, 2016 1 The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Conditions/problems on the Eastern Front. o The lack of weapons was the major problem for the Russian Army. 1 in 3 soldiers did not have a rifle. The Russians had ¼ the artillery of the Germans. Pounded by the German army. 2 million Russian soldiers were killed. 46 million Russian soldiers were wounded or captured. The February Revolution. o 10,000 women in Petrograd held a demonstration. o Shops and factories closed down. o Transportation had stopped running. What Is To Be Done o The revolution in Russia will be led by a small party of professional revolutionaries. Lenin’s campaign for supporters. o “Peace, Land, Bread, Now”. o Workers will have control of industry. Leon Trotsky and the Red Guard. o The revolution in Russia will be led by a small party of professional revolutionaries. o Led the October Revolution. o Training for the siege of ower. The October Revolution. o The Bolshevik seizure of power. o Took over communication centers in Petrograd. Important developments after the October Revolution. o Peace treaty signed with Germany. o Civil War 19181921. o Lenin’s death and Stalin’s rise to power. Fate of Nicholas II and his family. o Execution. Lenin’s “Testament”. o Wanted someone else in his place besides Stalin. o Not endorsing Stalin as his successor. o Was not made public until 1958. Stalin’s falsification of photographs. o Made a lot of “fake” photos to achieve his end. o Became a trend in altering photographs to alter records. Stalin’s “Revolution from Above” Five Year Plans. o Wanted rapid industrialization in a short amount of time. o High goals to project targets. Conditions of everyday life for industrial workers. o Food rationing. o Consumer goods were in short supply. Clothes. Shoes. Home goods. o Very little emphasis placed on consumer goods. Stalin’s industrial development: the view from below. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 2 o Loaded the working class with socialist competition, shock work, overfulfilling the industrial and financial plan, and so forth. o Toils seven hours not leaving his post. o Sits in endless meetings or classes for 1 ½ 2 hours in order to increase his skill level. Collectivization of agriculture. o Transform from an agricultural for a greater output for the land. Feed industrial workers. Export grain in order to obtain equipment. o Order peasants. Give up their private land and their livestock. Relocated. o Collective farms. Transformed private agriculture into small staterun collective farms. People were set on farms to meet quotas. Complete in most areas of the Soviet Union. Kulaks. o Peasants who resisted collectivization. o Burnt their fields and killed their livestock in order to resist the Soviet Union. Famine 19323. o Claimed about 35 million lives. o Let nature run its course and let people die. The Great Terror. o Campaign to purge people who were enemy of the people. Essential to the success of the country. People from all rules of life were considered and enemy. o Nearly 1 million people killed. 1.5 million people sent to labor camps. Propaganda—A.O. Advienko. o Everything he is and everything he has is because of Stalin. o Stalin is the new God in the Soviet Union. o Be willing to work hard and sacrifice for Stalin. o Paintings. The “Cut of Stalin”. Stakhanovites. o Make people work harder for their goods. o “Heroes of labor”. The Nazi State Hitler’s economic programs. o Enabling Act. Granted Hitler ultimate power for 4 years. 4 year plan turned into a 12 year dictatorship. o Public work projects. Batted unemployment. Built up construction. Autobahm. Engineers and workers would find jobs easily. Hitler Youth. o Get the ready for their future roles in the army. Military instruction. o Males age 1018. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 3 League of German Girls. o Females ages 1018. o Breeding program where the girls would have a relationships with the S.S. officers. o Gave a gift of pure Aryan race to the German population. o Defy social convention to please Hitler. Nazi ideology and school materials. o AntiSemitism. Heinrich Himmler and the Lebensborn. o Head of the S.S. and Gestapo Chief of police. o Pregnant young women were able to liv there and get the proper nutrition and housing they needed before they gave birth. Marriage loan scheme. o A German couple could apply for an interestfree loan of 1,000 Reichmarks. o The future wife has to be employed and must leave her job upon marriage. o ¼ of the loan would be paid for 1 child. o ½ of the loan would be paid for 2 children. o 1/3 of the loan would be paid for 3 children. o The entire loan would be paid for 4 children. Honor Cross of the German Mother. o Acknowledgement of the mother’s contribution to the state with a medal. o In the city, 745 women received the medal. Brought 7,372 children into Germany. Sterilization program. o Anyone is hereditarily ill within the meaning of this law who suffers from one of the following illnesses cannot have children: Congenital feeblemindedness. Schizophrenia. Manic depression. Hereditary epilepsy. Huntington’s chorea. Hereditary blindness. Hereditary deafness. Serious physical deformities. Chronic alcoholism. o Nearly 320,000 people had been sterilized. AntiSemitism in Nazi Germany AntiSemitism in Europe. o Barrage of propaganda against Jews, blamed for all the troubles of modernity, from socialism, to international banks and mass culture. Score of books. Pamphlets. Magazines. o Violent assaults on Jewish communities. April boycott. o People across Germany were encouraged to not buy from Jewish shops and businesses. o Hitler tried to hurt the Jews economically. o Deprive the Jewish people of earning a livelihood. Exclusionary laws of 1933. o Excluded Jewish people from working in civil services, legal professions, judgeships, medical professions, teaching professions, cultural and entertainment enterprise, and the press. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 4 Reich Citizenship Law. o Stripped the Jewish people of their citizenship, rights and privileges. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor. o Prohibited marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Germans. “The Night of Broken Glass”. o Destruction of Jewish businesses, synagogues, and homes. 700 businesses destroyed. About 100 Jewish people were killed. Marta Appel’s account. o Social death before physical death. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Hitler’s violations of the Treaty of Versailles. o Expand the size of the German army, build an air force, and build up the navy. o German rearmament. AngloGerman. o Germany could build up its navy, but limit the size of the navy. o Beginning of the British policy of appeasement. o Made negotiations and concessions with Hitler to keep the peace in Europe and avoid a war. Treaty appeasement. o Did not want another WWI. o Some people believed that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and Germany had legitimate grievances to redress. o Some people believed that a strong Germany would stop the spread of communism in Europe. Neville Chamberlain. o Wanted to avoid a repetition of the Great War in Europe. Munich Conference. o Diplomatic victory. o Determined the fate of Sudetenland. David Low. o Important early political cartoonist. Winston Churchill. o Presence of a disaster of the first magnitude. Pact of Steel. o Mutual aid in the event of a war. Nonaggression Pact. o The Soviet Union would stay neutral in the event of a war.