×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry - 7 Edition - Chapter 10 - Problem 67
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry - 7 Edition - Chapter 10 - Problem 67

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Solved: A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a

Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780618528448 174

Solution for problem 67 Chapter 10

Chemistry | 7th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 7th Edition

4 5 1 413 Reviews
24
5
Problem 67

A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a way that the fluoride ions occupy simple cubic lattice sites, while the metal ions occupy the body centers of half the cubes. What is the formula of the metal fluoride?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Chapter 13: Blood, Heart and Circulation • Circulatory System o Functional term o Prefer the use of cardiovascular system • Blood o Function divided into 3 broad areas: § Transportation – moving oxygen and wastes, hormones, clotting factors, etc. § Regulation – body temperature for example § Protection – antibodies Composition of Blood: • Blood is the only fluid tissue of the human body • Arterial Blood: blood leaving the heart o Bright red because of high oxyhemoglobin concentration • Venous Blood: blood returning to the heart o Darker red because of less oxygen • Plasma: fluid portion o Liquid of water and dissolved solutes, plus varied organic molecules à sodium makes up the largest percentage o 55% of blood composition • Cellular component: (Table 13.2) o Suspended in plasma o 45% of blood composition o Platelets: also called thrombocytes § Smallest of formed elements that are actually fragments of large cells found in bone marrow § Lack nuclei but are capable of movement through the capillaries § Survive for 5-­‐9 days before being destroyed by liver and spleen § Important in blood clotting § Release serotonin (causes vasoconstriction) and growth factors (maintain integrity of blood vessel) o Erythrocyte § Function to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide § Lack nuclei and mitochondria § Circulating life span of about 120 days § Contain 280 million hemoglobin à give blood its red color • Hemoglobin molecule = 4 globin protein chains bound to one heme molecule – the iron group in heme is able to combine with oxygen in the lungs an release it in the tissues § Transferrin: protein that carries iron in the blood tot the bone marrow § The iron is recycled from old red blood cells by phagocytes in the liver and spleen o Leukocyte: § Different from erythrocytes because they have nuclei and mitochondria and can move through capillary walls • Diapedesis or Extravasation: movement of leukocytes through capillary walls to reach sites of infection • Aids in defense against infections by microorganisms § Granulocytes: survive 12 hours-­‐3 days • Neutrophils: o 2-­‐5 lobes o 54-­‐62% of WBC o Phagocytic • Eosinophil: o Bilobed o 1-­‐3% of WBC o Detoxify foreign substances, secrete enzymes that dissolve clots, fight parasitic infection • Basophil: o >1% of WBC o Release anticoagulant heparin § Agranulocytes: Survive 100-­‐300 days • Monocytes: o 3-­‐9% of WBC o phagocytic • Lymphocytes: o Nucleus nearly fits cell o 25-­‐33% of WBC o provides specific immune response (includes antibodies) Hematopoiesis • Occurs in red bone barrow • Influence by cytokines and other regulatory molecules o Thrombopoietin and erythropoietin regulate the pathway of what the stem cells produce • Hemacytoblast: pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell o Forms lymphoid stem cell à produces lymphocyte o Forms myeloid stem cellà forms erythropoietin and interleukins, CSFs § Erythropoietin produces erythrocytes, neutrophil and monocyte § Interleukins produce eosinophil, basophil and megakaryocyte Erythrocytes: Red Blood Cells • Supply of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid needed for proper red blood cell production • Regulated by EPO o Produced by kidney o Looks at oxygen carrying capacity (oxygen level) – if oxygen level is too low à makes more erythrocytes • Lover, spleen and bone marrow remove aged cells, recycle iron and globin • Erythropoiesis is a very active process – requires iron and myoglobin • Ferroportin channels in enterocytes – regulate iron concentration levels • Transferrin (plasma protein) in plasma • Role of HEPCIDIN (poly peptide hormone produced by the liver) o Promotes cellular storage of iron and lower blood iron concentration, does so by working through Ferroportin channels • Blood type result of distinguishing antigens displayed on cell surface o Genetically determined o Immune system exhibits tolerance to body’s red blood cells • Longevity ~ 120 days Blood Clotting: • Homeostasis: cessation of bleeding • Effective in dealing with injury to small vessels but little help for middle to large vessels • Observe 3 separate but overlapping homeostatic mechanisms o Vascular spasm o Formation of platelet plug o Clot forming Vascular Phase: • Function: close off vessels, reduce blood loss and allow time for other processes to stop bleeding in larger vessels • Vasocontrictive event: immediate response to injury o Occurs in smooth muscle of vessel walls – inherent in smooth muscle itself • Vascular spasm: occurs in vascular wall o Makes the lumen smaller by contracting to reduce blood flow/loss and gives time for other process Platelet Phase: • Platelet Plug: o Positive feedback event o Organizes for blood clot formation o Platelets activate clotting factors o Temporary fix – must be stabilized • Platelets repelled from each other and endothelium • Prostacyclins/Prostaglandins and NO – vasodilators and inhibit platelet aggregation • CD39: enzyme that breaks down ADP à promotes platelet aggregation • Degranulate • Platelet release reaction o Exposure of collagen and VWF activate platelets o More platelets activated and recruited Coagulation Phase: • Blood Clot – initiating the process of transforming blood from a liquid to a gel • Represents the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel that results in the formation of a clot • Conversion of fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) into fibrin (insoluble fibrous protein) o Fibrin stabilizes the clot Clotting Pathways • Extrinsic Pathway: o Chemical released by damaged tissue – tissue thromboplastin o Activator tissue factor activates VII à activates X à activates common pathway § VII complex: VII, tissue factor, calcium, phospholipids à require calcium and phospholipids from platelets • Intrinsic Pathway o Contact pathway: initiated by negatively charged structures – collagen, phosphates and NETS o Initial activation factors activate XII à activates XI à activates IX (forms VIII complex)à activates X à activates common pathway § VIII complex: VII, activated IX, calcium and phospholipids from platelets) • Common Pathway o Activate factor 10: Stewart Brower factor o Activated X forms V complex § V complex: V, X activated, calcium and phospholipids (from platelets) o Activate factor 10 activates thrombin from prothrombin à thrombin activates fibrinogen into fibrin which is polymerized by factor XIII à blood clot is formed • Intrinsic is slower than Extrinsic • Many clotting factors are synthesized in the liver o Deficiency of vitamin K can lead to clotting problems and dysfunction in the liver • Clot retraction: contraction within platelet mass to form more compact and effective plug – serum (plasma-­‐lacking clotting factor) • Vitamin K: important in the synthesis of the clotting factor produced in the liver o Problems in people that take a lot of antibiotics because it kills the bacteria hat provides vitamin K à leads to problems in clotting Clot Dissolution • Plasminogen activators turns plasminogen into plasmin à produces soluble fibrin fragments from fibrin (breaks down some of the clot) o Kallikrein: main plasminogen activator in humans – tears down the clot • 3 mechanisms that oppose clot formation: o Tissue factor pathway inhibitor – TFPI § From endothelium; blocks clotting o Thrombomodulin: § Receptor for thrombin – becomes inactive upon binding protein C (natural anticoagulant) activator o Antithrombin III: § Inactivates thrombin and other clotting factors • Function: limit clot formation so that the clot does not get too large – does not completely inhibit • Balance between clot formation and elements that are depressing the clotting process Circulation Circuits and the Heart: • Pulmonary: out of the right side of the heart à lungs à drop CO2 and add O2 à back to the left side of the heart through the aorta • Systematic: pick up CO2 out of the left side of the heart and brings oxygen to the tissues • Equal blood flow in circuits – prevents fluid accumulation in lungs and oxygenated blood delivery to the body • Side-­‐by-­‐side pumps: right and left side feed different circulatory circuit o Right side serves pulmonary circuit o Left side serves systematic circuit o In general: blood flows from right side of heart à lungs à left side à body tissue à back to right side (constant cycle) o More resistance in the systematic circuit so the wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right • Valves: direct blood flow in the heart o Atrioventricular valves: direct blood from the atria to the ventricles § Valves between atria and ventricles • Tricuspid valve: has 3 flaps on the right side of the heart • Bicuspid valve: has 2 flaps on the left side o Semilunar valves: direct flow from atria to aorta or pulmonary trunk but do not allow backflow from the ventricles to the atria § Allow blood from the heart out to the circulation circuits – oppose blood back into the heart from circuits § Located at the origin of the pulmonary artery and aorta • Fibrous Skeleton: layer of dense connective tissue found between the atria and the ventricles o Serves as an attachment site for the myocardium of the ventricles o Structurally and functionally separates the atria from the ventricles o Provides support for the valves Cardiac Cycle • Repeating pattern of the contraction and relaxation of the heart o Systole: contraction phase § Isovolumetric contraction phase and ejection phase o Diastole: relaxation phase § Isovolumetric relaxation phase, rapid filling phase and atrial contraction phase o Diastole and systole partitioned differently – diastole is longer • Occurs in both the atria and the ventricles • Ventricles are power pumps – generate force to push blood through circuits • Atria primary job is to fill up ventricles • Isovolumetric contraction: all valves are closed o Closed compartment with the ventricle contracting à pressure building up but volume stays the same o Atria relaxed, ventricles contract • Ventricular ejection: pressure in left ventricle > pressure in aorta à blood is pushed out of the ventricles of the heart à semilunar valves open o Atria relaxed, ventricles contract • Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation: all valves closed with entering diastole o Pressure in the atria > pressure in the ventricle à Atrioventricular valves open and the heart begins to fill – rapid ventricular filling o Atria and ventricles relaxed, Semilunar valves closed • Atrial contraction (atrial systole): delivers final amount of blood into the ventricles o Atria contract, ventricles relaxed • Atria are primer pumps but serve an important purpose the textbook overlooks • During systole there is a spike in pressure to eject the blood out o EDV (End Diastolic Volume): volume of the blood in the heart before it ejects o Stroke Volume: ejected out Electrical Activity of the Heart • Atria and ventricles are “electrically isolated” from each other by the fibrous skeleton of the heart o They can contract separately • Functional syncytium: o Gap junctions of intercalated discs electrically couple cardiac mycocytes o Automaticity § Automatic nature of the heartbeat § Due to autorhythmic cells that comprise the heart’s conduction system • Autorhythmic cells: non-­‐contractile cardiac muscle cells o Pacemaker: right atrium, where the autorhythmic cells are found § Region where spontaneous electrical signal originates • Location of autorhythmic cells § Sinoatrial or SA node • Right atrium Pacemaker Potential: • Cells of SA node exhibit slow, spontaneous depolarization—called pacemaker potential • Result due to channels opening because of membrane events (hyperpolarization from previous AP) • Channel permits Na to flow into the cell, causes a depolarization event à funny current • Channels open because of the hyperpolarization of the previous action potential – not because of depolarizationà sodium channels • Diastolic depolarization: o At threshold, voltage-­‐gated calcium channels open for depolarization with repolarization resulting from opening of voltage-­‐gated potassium channels • Autonomic nervous system influences the rate: o Everything starts in the right atria – the SA node is under influence of parasympathetic and sympathetic o Parasympathetic decreases heart rate because receptors open up separate potassium channels à elongate pacemaker potential o Sympathetic releases epinephrine and norepinephrine which increases heart rate – causes an increase in cAMP in the cell § Pacemaker potential cells are called HCN channels § cAMP influences the HCN channels and shortens the pacemaker potential Myocardial Action Potential • In adjacent cardiac muscle cells in the myocardium, initiated by pacemaker cells to produce action potentials • Different from skeletal muscle: o Open up fast sodium channels which causes a spike o Open slow calcium channels and slow potassium channels à produces elongation aka plateau Conducting Tissue of the Heart • Action potentials from SA node spread at 0.8-­‐1m/sec across atria • Conduction slows with AV node-­‐delay • Conduction speeds increase with fastest in purkinje fibers – 5m/sec • Ventricular contraction begins ~ 0.1-­‐0.2 seconds after atrial contraction Excitation-­‐Contraction Coupling • Note, a calcium-­‐induced calcium release is observed from the SR as seen in skeletal muscle, however excitation-­‐contraction coupling is slower due to system not as efficient as in skeletal muscle • Calcium is lowered by calcium-­‐ATPase pumps of SR and Na-­‐Ca exchanger in plasma membrane • Unlike skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, cardiac muscle cannot sustain a contraction – contractions lasting about 300msec • Long absolute refractory period prevents summation of contraction, ensures rhythmic pumping of heart • Is summation important to the heart o No, it is electrically coupled – the cardiac muscle cells are activated anyway by gap junctions o We don’t need summation because we have functional syncytium Blood Vessels • Conduits that form a network throughout body permitting distribution of blood to body tissues • Diverging: big vessels going to smaller ones • Converging: vessels coming together to get larger and larger • Muscular: deliver and control blood flow to organs o Large tunica media • Layers – TIME o Layers of a vessel deepest to the most superficial § Tunica interna § Tunica media § Tunica externa • Elastic: internal elastic lamina o Can enlarge and recoil back à smoothing effect • Capillaries: site of exchange o Endothelium with a basement membrane wrapping around them • Arterioles: adapted for vasoconstriction and vasodilation o Used for regulation o Respond to minute-­‐to-­‐minute changes o Regulation within the organ • Pressure within the venial side is less than on the arterial side Capillaries • Functional unit of cardiovascular system • Smallest blood vessels • Endothelium with basal membrane o Endothelium: simple squamous cells • Branch extensively o Metarteriole (arterial capillary): shunt between these branches • Well suited for function – exchange • Do not function independently but together as a group à referred to as a capillary bed o Allow blood to flow through it then close the blood supply off if it is not needed • Flow into capillary bed controlled by pre-­‐capillary sphincter – contracts/relaxes in response to tissue needs o Observed to follow a cycle, contracting/relaxing at a rate of ~5-­‐10 cycles/min – vasomotion Basic types of capillaries: • Continuous: (Least leaky) o Most common o Located in all vascularized tissue o All organs have these • Fenestrated: o Similar to continuous but contain pores or fenestrations covered by membrane (diaphragm) o Allows exchange and usually found where active absorption or filtration occur o Intestine, kidney, and endocrine organs • Sinusoids (discontinuous): most leaky o Highly modified, leaky capillaries restricted to certain organs o Suited for passage of large molecules and blood cells o Discontinuous basement membranes o Restricted to the liver, spleen and bone marrow Veins • Large lumens and thin walls • Accommodate large blood volume, thus referred to as capacitance vessels • Low pressure, so structural adaptations arose to ensure blood returns to heart: o Large diameter, low resistance o Venous valves – ensures unidirectional flow o Skeletal muscle pumps

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 10, Problem 67 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 7
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780618528448

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 67 from chapter: 10 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:50PM. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780618528448. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 2481 solutions. The answer to “A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a way that the fluoride ions occupy simple cubic lattice sites, while the metal ions occupy the body centers of half the cubes. What is the formula of the metal fluoride?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 38 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 7. Since the solution to 67 from 10 chapter was answered, more than 524 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Solved: A certain metal fluoride crystallizes in such a