You can easily convert common units and measures electronically, but you still should be able to use a conversion table, such as those in Appendix D. Table 1-6 is part of a conversion table for a system of volume measures once common in Spain; a volume of 1 fanega is equivalent to 55.501 dm3 (cubic decimeters). To complete the table, what numbers (to three significant figures) should be entered in (a) the cahiz column, (b) the fanega column, (c) the cuartilla column, and (d) the almude column, starting with the top blank? Express 7.00 almudes in (e) medios, (f) cahizes, and (g) cubic centimeters (cm3).
Study Guide Exam 4 Part 1 Key Terms: Personality Gordon Allport Genetic factors Heritability of personality Shared environment (%) Nonshared environment (%) Twins studies Five Factor Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa) Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Eysenck’s Biological Trait Model (3 dimensions) Eysenck’s beliefs on extraversion (inverted U graph) Adaptability of personality traits Stability of personality Practice Multiple Choice Questions: 1. Who initiated the field of personality psychology A. Freud B. Triplett C. Allport D. Eysenck 2. What is the heritability of personality A. 50% of the variability in personality is attributable to genetic factors B. 25% of the variability in personality is attributable to genetic factors C. 50% of a person’s personality is attributable to their parents D. 25% of a person’s personality is attributable to their parents 3. Which is more prevalent when determining personality A. Shared environment B. Nonshared environment 4. Personality is heavily determined by parenting style A. True B. False 5. The acronym OCEAN refers to which theory A. Schachter-singer two factor theory B. Mowrer two factor theory C. Five factor model D. Dimensional model of personality 6. Which personality trait is typically over expressed in people with internalizing disorders A. Agreeableness B. Openness to new experience C. Conscientiousness D. Neuroticism 7. What dimension(s) are discussed in Eysenck’s Biological Trait Model (circle all that apply) A. Psychoticism B. Neuroticism C. Extraversion D. Agreeableness E. Conscientiousness 8. Eysenck believed that introverts are chronically: A. Over-aroused B. Under-aroused C. Neutrally aroused 9. Populations with diverse personalities perish before populations with homogenous personalities A. True B. False 10. Personality is most consistent after age 50 A. True B. False Study Guide Exam 4 Pt 2 Key Terms: Test/retest reliability (for personality) Age-related change in personality Temperament Heritability of temperament Activity level Emotionality Sociability Psychopathology Psychological disorder Symptomology Etiology Prognosis Prevalence Point prevalence Lifetime prevalence DSM Categorical approach Dimensional approach Discrete (DSM) Comorbidity What comorbidity implies about psychopathology Anxiety Mood Internalizing Externalizing Disinhibition p Specific phobia Social anxiety disorder Panic disorder Generalized anxiety disorder OCD Obsessions Compulsions PTSD Depressive disorders Negative Affect vs. Positive affect Hypercortisolism Bipolar I Bipolar II Mania vs. hypomania Heritability of bipolar Schizophrenia Delusions Hallucinations Substance use disorders Tolerance Withdrawal Practice Multiple Choice Questions: 1. If personality stability is measured at r = .5, using the test/retest reliability what % of the variability in construct 1 will be attributable to construct 2 A. 10% B. 25% C. 40& D. 55% 2. As we get older neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to new experiences usually increases A. True B. False 3. What is the heritability of temperament A. 33% B. 50% C. 66% D. 100% 4. Laura cries very easily when she is put in a difficult situation. Which temperament would she fall under A. Activity level B. Emotionality C. Sociability 5. Studying the factors that contribute to the development of an illness is called: A. Symptomology B. Etiology C. Prognosis D. Prevalence 6. At this moment, 25% of the population meets criteria for generalized anxiety disorder; this is an example of A. Point prevalence B. Lifetime prevalence 7. The DSM is: A. Categorical B. Dimensional 8. Disorders in the DSM are: A. Discrete B. Overlapping 9. If someone meets criteria for more than one disorder they have: A. Dual psychosis B. Overlapping disorders C. Crossover illness D. Comorbidity 10. Internalizing disorders are more common in: A. Men B. Women C. There is no difference between the sexes 11. Externalizing disorders are more common in: A. Men B. Women C. There is no difference between the sexes 12. Marco has a hard time controlling his urge to steal candy bars from the supermarket. This behavior is called: A. Low self-efficacy B. PTSD C. Disinhibition D. Unconditional disregard 13. What is the underlying factor of mental illnesses called A. p B. g C. a D. x 14. Anxiety disorders elicit hyperactivation of: A. The amygdala B. The pons C. The sympathetic nervous system D. The parasympathetic nervous system E. A and C F. B and D 15. Kirsten has anxiety around bees, in no other parts of her life does she have this level of anxiety. What type of anxiety disorder does Kirsten have A. Specific phobia B. Social anxiety disorder C. Panic disorder D. Generalized anxiety disorder 16. Matt is afraid to go out to a party because he does not want to say something stupid ad have everyone laugh at him, so he decides to stay home and watch TV. What type of anxiety disorder does Matt have A. Specific phobia B. Social anxiety disorder C. Panic disorder D. Generalized anxiety disorder 17. Ken had OCD. Ken believes that he has so many germs on his hands that he’s going to end up getting his family sick and they’re all going to die. Ken washes his hands constantly to remove the germs. What is Ken’s compulsion A. Believing he has tons of germs on his hands B. Believing he is going to accidently kill his family C. Having OCD D. Washing his hands 18. Kelly was in a horrible car accident. She has symptoms of nightmares, flashbacks, and low mood for 2 weeks. Can Kelly be diagnosed with PTSD A. Yes B. No 19. Anhedonia is _______ of ______ affect A. Low, positive B. Low, negative C. High, positive D. High, negative 20. Major depressive disorder is marked by symptoms that persist past ________ A. 2 Weeks B. 2 Months C. 2 Years 21. Memory problems in depression are linked to: A. Hyperthyroidism B. Hyperendorphinism C. Hypercortisolism D. Hyperanxiolism 22. Bipolar I disorder includes at least one episode of: A. Hypermania B. Mania C. Hypomania 23. What is the heritability of bipolar disorder A. 25% of the variability in bipolar disorder is attributable to genetic factors B. 35% of the variability in bipolar disorder is attributable to genetic factors C. 85% of the variability in bipolar disorder is attributable to genetic factors D. 100% of the variability in bipolar disorder is attributable to genetic factors 24. Maura has schizophrenia. She believes that is she walks through the threshold of her bedroom door that her organs are going to fall out of her body. As she stands up to walk out of her room she feels like her organs are falling out of her body. What is Maura’s delusion A. The threshold of her bedroom door B. The feelings of her organs falling out C. The thought of her organs falling out if she passes the threshold D. Her organs 25. Psychosis is related to _____ dysregulation A. Dopamine B. Serotonin C. Norepinephrine D. Epinephrine 26. If the number of drinks you have a day exceeds six, you have a substance use disorder. A. True B. False 27. Lynn can drink a bottle of vodka and hardly feel drunk. This is an example of: A. Tolerance B. Withdrawal C. Legality issues D. Dissociation Study Guide Exam 4 Pt 3 Key terms: Personality disorders Cluster A, B, C ADHD Inattentive Hyperactive-Impulsive Combined Heritability of ADHD Psychological therapies vs. Biological therapies Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) Pharmacotherapy Anxiolytic drugs Antidepressants SSRIs & SNRIs Antipsychotics Mood stabilizers Stimulant medications Psychotherapy Psychodynamic theory Freud Free association Cognitive approach Aaron Beck Behavioral theory Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Thorndike, Skinner, Watson, Pavlov Interpersonal Gerald Klerman Client-centered Carl Rogers Genuineness, unconditional positive regard, empathy Practice Multiple Choice Questions: 1. Personality disorders are fleeting and selective is which areas of a person’s life they affect A. True B. False 2. Darnell is constantly anxious about his relationships, work, and academics. He is always in fear that he will fail in these areas of his life. Which personality disorder cluster would Darnell fall under A. A B. B C. C 3. Caryn is known to be constantly overdramatic when she doesn’t get her way, and goes off on sprees of erratic behavior to compensate for not getting what she wants. Which personality disorder cluster would Caryn fall under A. A B. B C. C 4. Phil is known around the office as the “odd guy.” He constantly interrupts people to comment on the weather, tears his sandwiches into pieces before eating it, and makes beeping noises when typing. Which personality disorder cluster would Phil fall under A. A B. B C. C 5. Which form of ADHD is most common A. Inattentive B. Hyperactive-impulsive C. Combined 6. Symptoms of ADHD need to be present before age ___ for a diagnosis A. 2 B. 12 C. 22 D. 32 7. ADHD is highly heritable A. True B. False 8. Which biological therapy utilizes shock to help treat mental disorders A. ECT B. DBS C. Pharmacotherapy 9. Which biological therapy utilizes medication to help treat mental disorders A. ECT B. DBS C. Pharmacotherapy 10. Which biological therapy utilizes a thin electrode to help treat mental disorders A. ECT B. DBS C. Pharmacotherapy 11. Benzodiazepines fall under which category of drugs A. Antipsychotics B. Antidepressants C. Mood stabilizers D. Anxiolytics 12. Anxiolytics work on which neurotransmitter A. Glutamate B. GABA C. Serotonin D. Dopamine 13. SSRIs help treat: A. Depression B. Anxiety C. Bipolar disorder D. Schizophrenia 14. Antipsychotics administered too heavily to a schizophrenic patient can give them symptoms of: A. Huntington’s disease B. Alzheimers C. Parkinson’s disease D. Depression 15. Antipsychotics works of which neurotransmitter A. Glutamate B. GABA C. Serotonin D. Dopamine 16. Lithium is a(n) A. Antipsychotic B. Anxiolytic C. Anti-depressant D. Mood stabilizer 17. Stimulant medications are used to treat A. ADHD B. Depression C. Anxiety D. Personality disorders 18. Freud is associated with which psychological therapy A. Interpersonal B. Client-centered C. Behavioral D. Psychodynamic 19. Which psychotherapy utilizes operant and classical conditioning to treat patients A. Cognitive B. Behavioral C. Client-centered D. Interpersonal 20. Who discussed the importance of genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy in client-centered treatment A. Abraham Maslow B. Carl Rogers C. Sigmund Freud D. Gerald Klerman 21. The cognitive approach believes ____ are responsible for psychopathology A. Beliefs B. Learned behavior C. Unconscious thoughts D. Social relationships 22. What psychologist is associated with interpersonal psychotherapy A. Freud B. Klerman C. Pavlov D. Watson Study Guide Exam 4 Pt 4 Key Terms: Randomized controlled trial Meta-analysis Dodo bird verdict Common factors theory Client factors, relationship, expectations, treatment Exposure Mowrer’s Two Factor Theory Classical and Operant conditioning in regard to anxiety pathology Negative reinforcement Avoidance Psychotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy Practice Multiple Choice Questions: 1. Why is the randomized controlled trial limited in exploring effectiveness of psychotherapy rd A. It can’t rule out a 3 variable B. It does not account for natural recovery C. It cannot include another level of the IV D. A and B E. B and C 2. “All psychological treatments yield similar results” is the motto of the: A. Cardinal verdict B. Dodo bird verdict C. Common Factors theory D. Mowrer 2 factor theory 3. Which theory says that different therapeutic approaches have common components and these components account for the outcome more than the components that are unique to each approach A. Psychoanalytic theory B. Mowrer 2 factor theory C. Common factors theory D. G theory 4. Behavioral therapy works better for depressive disorders A. True B. False 5. According to the Mowrer 2 Factor theory, anxiety pathology is acquired through _____ conditioning and maintained though ________ conditioning A. Operant, classical B. Classical, operant 6. Avoidance is associated with: A. Positive reinforcement B. Positive punishment C. Negative punishment D. Negative reinforcement 7. _______ increases anxiety in the long term, and _______ decreases anxiety in the long term: A. Avoidance, exposure B. Exposure, avoidance 8. Pharmacotherapy works better than psychotherapy once treatment is discontinued A. True B. False Answer Key Part 1 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. A, B, C 8. A 9. B 10. A Part 2 1. B 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. D 10. B 11. A 12. C 13. A 14. E 15. A 16. B 17. D 18. B 19. A 20. A 21. C 22. B 23. C 24. C 25. A 26. B 27. A Part 3 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. A 9. C 10. B 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. D 16. D 17. A 18. D 19. B 20. B 21. A 22. B Part 4 1. D 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. B