Use (1) to find the general solution of
Use MATLAB or a CAS to find eAt.
Referenc e: Equation 1
Chapter 13 Personality Ways of looking at the self: Personality ● A person’s individual characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors ● Persisting over time and across situations Freud ● He “discovered” the unconscious ● People came to him with problems like a numb hand, and he attributed it to the unconscious mind. ● Free association if he had someone freely talk, he would find a hint of the subconscious ● the “problem” was that you had sexual tensions ● His name for his theory and his treatment technique: psychoanalysis ● “Freudian slips” “hello my beheaded, I mean, my beloved” Freud’s Personality Iceberg ● Personality arises from conflict between impulse and restraint ○ Id (pleasure) ○ Ego (reality) ○ Superego (our moral compass) ○ The ego is the mediator Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Stages ● The id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones, sensitive areas of the body ● People can get fixated at one stage ● Stages: ○ Oral (018 months) pleasure centers on the mouth ○ If you did not make it through this stage, you always need a cigarette in your mouth Male development issues ● “The Oedipus complex” boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and view their fathers as a rival. ● Resolution: boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival Defense Mechanisms (Freud) ● We are anxious about our unacceptable impulses, so the ego represses this anxiety with the help of defense mechanisms (unconsciously distort reality) Assessing the unconscious: ● Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through free association and dream analysis ● Dream analysis ○ Skyscraper = penis ● Projective tests ○ Ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind ○ Ie. thematic apperception test: view ambiguous pictures and make up stories about them ○ Rorschach test: “what do you see in these ink blots” ○ Problem: results don’t link well to traits and different raters get different results (low validity and low reliability) Evidence has updated Freud’s ideas: ● Development is life long ● Peers have more influence on personality ● Dreams as well as “Freudian slips” don’t reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes ● Traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered, not repressed ● Few objective observations, few testable hypotheses ● Gender and sexual orientation seems to be more a function of genetics Humanistic theories of Personality ● The “third force” in psychology ● 1st force freud ● 2nd force behaviorism (no free will, you are a product of your environment) ● 3rd force: ○ They studied healthy people and the conditions that support healthy lifesty es ● Maslow: the self actualizing person ○ People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs ○ self transcendence ● Carl Rogers ● 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment ● If our selfconcept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively ● The 3 conditions: ○ genuineness, acceptance, and empathy Critiquing the Humanist Perspective ● Encouraging selfindulgence, self centeredness ● The human capacity for evil ● Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait ● Humanist response: selfacceptance is not the end; it then allows us to move on and do good in the world and loving and caring for others. Trait theory of personality ● Trait ○ A characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain way. Ie honest, shy, hard working ● Trait theory of personality ○ We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person ● Factor analysis and the Eysencks’ personality dimensions ○ Compass of stable, unstable, extraverted, and introverted ○ Identify statistically correlated clusters of behavior ● Traits; rooted in biology ● Brain: ○ extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low ○ Introverts have too much brain arousal so they seek less stimulation ● Body ○ The trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an easily triggered alarm system) ● Genes ○ Selective breeding of animals, can select for traits (shyness, sociability, etc.) suggesting genetic roots for these traits. The big 5 personality dimensions: ● Conscientiousness ● Agreeableness ● Openness ● Extraversion ● Neuroticism Questions about traits ● Stability ○ Change over the lifespan; not much. With time, personality traits become more stable ○ Everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable ○ Genes account for 50% of the variation for most traits Predictive value: do traits predict behavior ● Conscientiousness grades, healthy lifestyle behaviors ● Extraversion a lot of time spent in social activities ● happiness low neuroticism, high extraversion, agreeableness ● Marital satisfaction The personsituation controversy ● Are your behaviors due to situations or stable traits ● Specific behaviors can vary in different situations ● We change interests, careers relationships ● Averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits ● Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce