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2, 4, 7 n 3 x

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9781439048474 | Authors: Ron Larson ISBN: 9781439048474 185

Solution for problem 68 Chapter 3.2

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9781439048474 | Authors: Ron Larson

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Problem 68

2, 4, 7 n 3 x

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CBIO 2210 Notes 3/22/16 Urinary System: Chapter 25 Renal Functions  Kidneys make urine from blood o The kidneys filter blood but there is an intermediate fluid called filtrate before the end product of urine  Removal of… o toxins, o metabolic wastes (4 major types), o excess ions (ex: calcium, hydrogen ions (pH) ) from blood  Regulation of… o blood volume, o chemical composition, o pH  Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting o Making glucose out of non-carbohydrates o Keeps blood sugar from falling  Endocrine functions o Erythropoietin (hormone that kidneys produce during low O2 levels): regulation of RBC production  Regulation of blood pressure o Renin (enzyme released by kidneys): regulation of blood pressure and kidney function  Synthesis of vitamin D precursor o Vitamin D needed to absorb Calcium 4 Nitrogenous wastes  Each have nitrogen molecule  Ammonia (removed ammonia from amino acids is called deamination) o Very dangerous and toxic to red blood cells in moderate amounts o Liver adds CO2 to ammonia to make it Urea  Urea o Ammonia removed from protein with CO2 added  Uric acid o Made from excessive adenine and guanine from DNA or RNA  Creatinine o Creatine in muscles can be used to convert ADP to ATP and becomes creatinine o Mostly comes from cardiac and skeletal muscle o More accurate indicator if kidney malfunction than other wastes (if high in blood and low in urine) Renal Microanatomy  Nephrons: the structural and functional units that form urine o Tubules that receive blood and change it to urine  Approx. 1 million / kidney  2 main parts: o Renal corpuscle:  Glomerulus (tuft/cluster of capillaries) + Bowman’s capsule (surrounds glomerulus) o Renal tubule:  begins as a cup-shaped glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule surrounding the glomerulus  Fenestrated glomerular endothelium o allows filtrate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule Nephron Types  Cortical (85%) o More in cortex of kidney  Juxtamedullary (15%) o Nephron loop that dips deep in medulla o Do 80% of water reabsorption Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)  Regulates filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure  Involves modified portions of the: o distal convoluted tubule o afferent arteriole of glomerulus  2 important populations of cells: o granular cells (or JG cells)  enlarged smooth muscle cells around afferent arteriole  Can constrict  secretory granules containing renin  mechanoreceptors that detect changes in BP o macula densa  DCT cells that are chemoreceptors responding to changes in NaCl concentrations of filtrate Filtration Membrane  Porous membrane between the blood and the capsular space  Consists of: o fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries o visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule: podocytes with foot processes and filtration slits  podocytes control how much blood flows through tube by covering or uncovering holes (like recorder) o Gel-like basement membrane: fused basal lamellae of the two other layers  Allows passage of water and solutes smaller than most plasma proteins o fenestrations prevent filtration of blood cells o negatively charged basement membrane repels large anions such as plasma proteins o Slit diaphragms also repel macromolecules Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation  The kidneys filter the body’s entire plasma volume (3 liters) > 60 times / day  99% gets reabsorbed back into body  Filtrate o blood plasma minus proteins  Urine o contains metabolic wastes and un-needed substances o <1% of total filtrate (what happens to the other 99%)

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Chapter 3.2, Problem 68 is Solved
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Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 8
Author: Ron Larson
ISBN: 9781439048474

Algebra and Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781439048474. The answer to “2, 4, 7 n 3 x” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 6 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry, edition: 8. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 68 from chapter: 3.2 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/27/17, 07:37PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 83 chapters, and 8980 solutions. Since the solution to 68 from 3.2 chapter was answered, more than 238 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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2, 4, 7 n 3 x