/11 Exercises 94- 96. use Gaussia11 e/imi11atio11 011 the augmemed mmrix of the sysrem of linear equmio11s to test for consisTency, cmd to ji11d the general solution. 95_ 2Xt + X
Week 10 Slide 47 onwards in ecosystems powerpoint. Pedigrees, alleles, to genotypes and phenotypes. Linkage (mendel) to Population Genetics: Ovarian Cancer: By time it is stage three, two types of cells are present. They are pseudopods: move towards resources and away from danger. Advanced prostate cancer: metastopiezes to bone. 11 month life expectancy. Abiraterone therapy, drug of last resort. When administered, 33% patients won't respond. (Kills faster). Among responders, large variation of how long drug lasts. Blood flow brings testosterone, three types of cell, T- is mutant and does not need testosterone, they produce their own testosterone. 3 phenotypes. Tumor cells never mate. No meiosis. Only mitosis. They just clone. Mutation takes them from T+ to T-. Once cancer spread, T+ spread and kill person. You have to kill T+ with chemicals. Keeps body from producing testosterone. This favors genotype that produces testosterone. Abiraterone kills cells that use testosterone. Kill TP and T+. T- move towards the blood. They will kill you. --> Treat to contain it. Need TP and T+ to control the T-. Apply abiraterone sparcely. Some tool to know when evolution is not occurring. Heidy Weinberg Equilibrium. Set of expectations from making assumptions. 1 Infinite population (over a thousand around) 2 No allele flow, sub population where individuals migrating in and out. 3 No mutation (alleles there do not mutate) 4 Random mating. 5 No selection (equal fitness) What we expect to happen when nothing is happening. Clams are long lived and produce eggs and sperm, throw it all into the ocean. Form a zygote. Ultimate random mating. Big A and little a gametes. P is frequency of AA and q is aa. P + Q = 1. PQ is hetero. Knot theory: DNA gets tangled--> adaptation to organize it --> Chromosomes Chromosomes still have problems associated Hardy Weinberg: what happens with evolution and absence of processes. Deviations from HW can reveal: 1 Genetic Drift: allele shift 2 Allele Flow: Sub population where there is immigration and emigration. Introduce new alleles or alleles at different frequencies. 3 Mutation a Combining 2 different chromosomes b Change in a nucleotide i Mutations can be dominant or recessive. (harmful, neutral, or favorable - most time depends on the environment ex) white fur good in some places not in others). ii More likely to be a deleterious mutation is the population is going towards an adaptation. Vs. beneficial to have a mutation when population is far from their goal adaptation. Random mutation has a 50-50 chance that it will be beneficial (body size ex). iii Mutations are leagent. 2 Non-random mating (two kinds: assortative and dis-assortative) Over the hedge (allele flow): Raccoon: Misplaced when in your yard, no other place to go, lets move it to the forest. Chipmunk: Seems happy in civilization. What happens when we move animals: They go to the forest preserves. Ecological problems: If it is such a great place, its already full of raccoon (no advantage for newly placed raccoon)(it will starve) (carrying capacity) Hungry raccoon will do a lot of damage, destroy bird eggs, poke and kill turtle, catch all the clams Source-sink Evolutionary problems: Allele flow, under source sink, evolution favors ecotype of the source over the ecotype of the sink. Selecting the urban ecotype, that is best at being a pest, AGAINST the wildtype. Example) On electro gel medium, alleles migrate (some fast some slow). Sample grapes. 460 (homo fast), 23 (hetero), 517 (homo slow) Use HW equilibrium to see if it is at HW equilibrium. Use equation p^2 + 2pq + q^2 (x 1000). Find chisquare.