The (i .j)-entry of the mput- output matrix represents the amount of input from sector i needed to produce one unit of output from sector j.
The Holocaust (Week 7) Jewish responses in Lodz ghetto Fight – this was hard because most of the Jews were weak, they had no weapons, and no training Flight – hard to escape ghetto Wait it out: wai time = ally Hide – most successful strategy to survive Operation Reinhard Named in honor of Reinhard Heydrich MidMarch 1942 – 7580% of victims of Holocaust still alive March 1943 – 80% of victims dead Worst year of the Holocaust in terms of sheer numbers Pretty much destroyed Jewry Massive offensive Death camps established for this o Sobibor o Treblinka o Chelmno For this operation, you need trains, RR lines, men, and food Battle of Stalingrad going on at the same time o September 1942 – January 1943 Every train, gun, and man used for Reinhart, it took away from what they could’ve used during Stalingrad You could only send 5,000 Jews to camps a day Wehrmacht SS/Kripo/Gestapo (all under Himmler’s command) Order police/ active and reserve police Collaborators o SS Ukraine o SS Estonia o SS Latvia o SS Lithuania By operation Reinhart, there was a man power crisis o Men dying at Stalingrad and couldn’t kill Jews Largest German man power 1936 Himmler gained authority of all security police Regular police and order/ reserve police organized in battalions 500 men in order/ reserve police 2/3 men considered too old or not physically fit to be in order police Reserve police battalion 101 – city of Hamburg, in Lublin district of Poland Out of the 500 men, 200 were still alive post war when they were questioned by Germans Commander: Trapp, 53 year old policeman Was not in SS rank, not considered to be ruthless enough ______________________________________________________________________________ Operation Reinhard continued Reserve Police Battalion 101 o From Hamburg o Age 3348 o These men knew a world before Hitler and the Holocaust o 500 men total o They were dock, construction, and warehouse workers, waiters, office workers o Rankin file Average age 39 o Killed more Jews than any unit in Operation Reinhard o Only 25% of men joined the Nazi party o Major Trapp Took 300 Jews to Lublin to work, the rest were shot Someone refused to shoot Jews and he was not punished Trapp made an arrangement: any man that didn’t feel comfortable shooting Jews, they could step out Out of 500 men, 12 stepped out with no punishment ______________________________________________________________________________ Auschwitz (camp experience) Symbol of the Holocaust o 3 reasons for this: Sheer numbers – 1/6 victims died here Geography – The victims came from every corner of the Nazi world Time – first death camp to continue operation and last Were multiple Auschwitz Merely a concentration camp in the beginning Fall 1939 Primarily camp for Polish P.O.W.’s, Polish army, and political prisoners It was isolated yet accepted – railroad Hoss o Experienced Nazi o Not of high rank o The camp he rain was not important at first General government 1940 – I.G. Farben (chemical company) o Built plant “Bunna” o Bunna works made explosives o “Cheap” o Was a deal between SS and Farben o All money goes to SS o All the workers get is enough money to live for 6 months o Winter 1941 SS officials visited Auschwitz Ordered it to be expanded to hold 30,000 prisoners Soviet POW’s Auschwitz 2 – Birkenau o Hold 100,000 prisoners Summer 1941 – thousands of Soviet POWs shipped to Auschwitz o Were so many, they changed it to 200,000 o Ended up changing it to over 300,000 POWS o Within 1 year, 95% of them died o They were starved, killed by guards, or died of neglect Holocaust – Germans called it “the final solution” Shootings Gas vans Zyklon B (used for delousing) Auschwitz 1 – concentration camp Auschwitz 2 (Birkenau) – death camp Auschwitz 3 (Monowitz) – place for people who worked at Bunna works 50 satellite camps Selection: distribution to Auschwitz 2 or 3, or satellite camp (for Jews) Children under 12, pregnant women, elderly, and mothers sent to Birkenau – most died within a day/week Canada Hair of women shaved off and spun for industrial use o Socks, scarves, sweaters for troops Gold teeth taken after gassing Those registered for work got a tattoo number Twins and pregnant women didn’t get gas. They got experimented on. Kapo 8095% of people in Auschwitz were Jews o Were treated more harshly Rest were Pols or Gypsies o They got to receive letters and packages. Jews did not For every Jew to escape – 10 more were killed Some Jews committed suicide by running into electric fence