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Ch 4.3 - Problem 3

Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111826857 | Authors: Charles P. McKeague ISBN: 9781111826857 186

Solution for problem Problem 3 Chapter 4.3

Trigonometry | 7th Edition

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Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111826857 | Authors: Charles P. McKeague

Trigonometry | 7th Edition

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Problem Problem 3
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GeneticsWeek11Notes MONDAY Genomics:DNAsequencingisthebasisforidentifyingandmappingallgenesina genome • Structural o Analyzingnucleotidesequencestoidentifygenesandothersequences suchasregulatoryelements o Annotation–toidentifygenes o Sequences–thousandsofgenomeshavebeensequenced o 2approaches § Clonebyclone–takesgenomes,dividesintocosmids/artificial chromosomes,backsaredividedthensequenced.Placedin order.Manytimesover.Takesforever! § Shotgun–cutintomultipleoverlappingfragments.Let computerfindoverlapsandsequenceit.Oldway. § Modernway–throwentiregenomeintogeneratorandletit work.Nocuttingitup.Alignedinshotgunapproach,aka contigs. § Pairedendtagging–fragmentgenome,diluteandadd DNAligase,itcircularizesthencombinetogether.Thencut somewhereandsequencethroughjunction,cantellhowfar apartbasesare. o Genomesequencedmanytimestoensureaccuracy.Assembledand compiled o Analysisofgenomesequences § Identifyingopenreadingframes(ORF)–nostopcodonsand maycodeprotein § Findpromotersandtranscriptionandtranslationinitiation sites § Findingintronsandexonsineukgenomes § Analyzingpredictedproteinsequencestopredictprotein function § GENBANK–genomicdatabase,atNCBI,online InDNAsequence,howmanypotentialreadingframesarethere a. One,theonethatcodesforprotein b. Two,becausecouldbeineitherstrandofDNA c. Three,cuzribosomescouldstartatanyATGinsequence d. Six,cuzcouldstartatanypositionineitherstrand e. LarryHarshman • Functional o Attempttoidentifyfunctionsofgenes o SomeORF’shaveknownfunctionfromotherorganisms,othersidk o BLASTcomparesquerysequencetoGenBankdatabase o Revealshomologousgenes(evolutionarily-related)indifferent organisms o OrthologsandParalogs § Homologousgenesfromdifferentspeciesthoughttohave descendedfromcommonancestorcalledorthologs.B-globin genesofhumanandgorilla § Homologousgenesinsamespeciescalledparalogs.Humana- globinandb-globin o Findingfunction § Genesequenceàpredictpolypeptidesequence § Polypeptideanalyizedforspecificproteindomainsandmotifs • Proteindomains:ionchannels,membrane-spanning regions,secretion,andexportsignals • Motifs:helix-turn-helix,leucinezipper,zincfinger motifs o Vibriocholeragenome–killedmanypeople,inintestinaltractand givesyoudiarrhea. • Comparative • Metagenomics WEDNESDAY HumanGenomeProject • Lessthan2%genomecodesforproteins • Only25,000proteincodinggenes • Manygenescodeformultipleproteins • Functionalcategorieshavebeenassignedforhumangenesonbasisof o Functionsdeterminedpreviously o Comparisontoknowngenesandpredictedproteinsequencesfrom otherspecies o Predictionsbasedonannotationandanalysisofproteinfunctional domainsandmotifs Infunctionalgenomics,genein2differentspeciesthoughttobedescendedfromgene incommonancestorisan a. Ortholog b. Paralog c. Metalog d. Analog e. Lincolnlog “Omics”Revolution–neweraofresearchmethods • Proteomics • Metabolomics • Metagenomics • Transcriptionmics • Etceteromics o Stone-agegenomicsusingsmallamtsofancientDNAfromboneand othertissue o Datausedtostudyevolutionaryrelatednessofvariousextinctand present-dayspecies • J.CraigVenter–sequencedowngenome.Firstdiploidsequence,previous genomesequencecompositeofseveralindividuals,akaaveragesequence • SingleNucleotidePolymorephisms(SNPs) o Variationbetweendifferenthumans=polymorphism o SinglebasechangesSNPs o Verycommon! o Alleles(differsbyonenucleotide o Oftenhavenophenotype • Venter’sSequence o >4.1millionvariants(1,288,319novel) o 3,213,401SNPs o 53,823blocksubstitutions(2-206bp) o 292,102heterozygousindels(1-571bp) o 559,473homozygousindels(1-82,711bp) o 44%ofgenesareheterozygousforoneormorevariants o 2chromosomeswere99.5%identical • COMPARATIVEGenomics o Prokaryoticgenomesgenerallylessthan5Mb,lessthan5000genes o ManyprokaryoticgeneomesaresinglecircularDNAchromosome,but somelinearandsomespeiceshavemorethan1DNAmolecules o Manyprokaryotesalsocarry1+plasmids o Eukaryotes–highlyvariablegenomesize! o Share30%ofhumangeneswithyeast.80%withmiceand98%in chimpanzees o Manymutatedgenesinvolvedinhumandiseasesarepresentinmodel organisms o Share75%ofgenomewithdogs.Theyhavegeneticdisordersalso (Epilepsy,OCD),sexchromosomeaneuploids FRIDAY Comparativegenomics • Identifymemberofmultigenefamiliesincludingnonfunctionalpseudogenes • Groupofrelatedmultigenefamiliescalledsuperfamily • A-andB-form2clusters,shareDNAsequenceidentities o 3genesinA-globin,5genesinB-globin Metagenomicsappliesgenomictechniquesttoenvionrmentalsamples • Sequencegenomesfromentirecommunities • Allowsidentificationandanalysisofallorganismsinsample • Bacteriainlakes,soil,oceanorbacteriaandphageingut • SequenceallDNAandputinseparategenomesofeveryorganism o Teachmoreaboutbacterialspeciesandviruses o Greatpotentialforidentifyinggeneswithnovelfunctions,might advancemedicineandbiotechnology Transcriptome(RNA)analysisrevealsprofilesofexpressedgenesincellsand tissues • Globalanalysisofgeneexpression • Microarrayanalysisallowssequencingofallexpressedgenessimultaneously (oldtechnology) o Lookatgridandcanseewhatisexpressedandhowmuch Transposon–McClintock DescribedstructureofDNA–WatsonandCrick “X-raysaremutagenic”–Muller Generepressionineuk–Cytosinemethylation Southernblotting–Edwardsouthern B-galactosidaseexpressedconsitutivelyI-otherspos ClearedofcrimebyDNAevidence–Buckland Proteomicsidentifiesandanalyzesproteinsincell • Kindalikeexploringphenotype • Proteome–completesetofproteinsencodedbygenome • Genescanmakedifferentproteins • Proteinscanbemodified(Insulin) • Phosphorylationofproteins • 2DGE–separatebycharge.WillmoveacrosspHgradientandstopwhen neutralized.Thenseparatebysize(smallergoesfurther) o Chains–samesize,sameproteinswithdifferentconfigurations(post- transcriptionalmodifications) o Sendtomassspectrosystem • Massspeccanbeusedonfossilstoo • Systemsbiology–incorporatesdatafromareasofbiologytoanalyze interactions(AKAInteractome) • Networkmap–sketchshowinginteractingproteins,genes,othermolecules • Systemsbiologybecomingimportantfordrugdiscoveryanddevelopment process • Databasesbeingmadeformanyhumandiseases

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Chapter 4.3, Problem Problem 3 is Solved
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Textbook: Trigonometry
Edition: 7
Author: Charles P. McKeague
ISBN: 9781111826857

The full step-by-step solution to problem: Problem 3 from chapter: 4.3 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/27/17, 07:46PM. The answer to “” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 0 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Trigonometry, edition: 7. Since the solution to Problem 3 from 4.3 chapter was answered, more than 234 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781111826857. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 85 chapters, and 4184 solutions.

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Ch 4.3 - Problem 3