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Answer: In Exercises I- I 0. evaluate the determinant of each matrix using a cofactor

Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780131871410 | Authors: Lawrence E. Spence ISBN: 9780131871410 187

Solution for problem 4 Chapter 3.2

Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach | 2nd Edition

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Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780131871410 | Authors: Lawrence E. Spence

Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach | 2nd Edition

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Problem 4

In Exercises I- I 0. evaluate the determinant of each matrix using a cofactor expansion along rile indicmed column.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Adaptations to Seawater ● Homeostasis­­ constancy in the internal environment ● Enantiostasis­­ constancy in the internal functions ○ Things can change, but the functions are maintained ● How is metabolic rate measured ○ Amount of oxygen used or CO2 produced ○ Ignores the contribution of anaerobic respiration ● Salinity ○ Can change rapidly which affects organisms’ distribution ○ Can directly affect organisms through osmosis and diffusion ○ Organisms regulate organic and inorganic cellular constituents to adjust salinity ○ Body fluids of fish are ⅓ the concentration of their environment ○ Stenohaline­­ organisms that live in a small range of salinities ○ Euryhaline­­ organisms that live in a wide range of salinities ○ Internal environments of almost all invertebrates differ from their external environments in ionic and osmotic characteristics ■ This results in ionic and osmotic gradient ○ Most invertebrates­­ have equal concentrations of cell constituents to seawater ■ They don’t osmoregulate ○ 8­17% of energy is osmoregulation ○ Freshwater bony fish ■ Internal salinity (osmolality) of 200­300 mOsm/kg ■ External salinity of 1­40 ■ Water enters and solutes exit ● Excess water through urine ● Get more solutes through active uptake in gills and eating ○ Saltwater bony fish ■ Osmolality of 300­500 ■ External salinity of 1000 ■ Solutes enter and water exits ● They drink 3­10 times as much water as freshwater fish ● Ions Na and Cl are eliminated in chloride cells in gills ● Diatomic ions are eliminated through kidneys ○ Hagfish­­ the only vertebrate that is isosmotic ○ Fish moving between fresh­ and saltwater ■ Fresh­ to saltwater is harder because the salinity gradient is much larger ○ Sharks and rays ■ Nearly isosmotic; slightly hyperosmotic ■ Little water movement, but still ion regulation ● Each ion moves independently of other ions ● About 500 ions are supplied from water ● The other 500 come from osmolytes urea and TMAO ○ Urea­­ a waste product; highly soluble and uncharged ○ Costly to synthesize, easily lost because of its diffusibility ○ Poisonous in large quantities­­ TMAO fixes that ● Rectal glands­­ remove salt from blood ○ What about freshwater sharks and rays ■ They don’t produce as much urea; ex: bullshark ● But they need some of it for when they are in saltwater ■ The freshwater ray lost almost all of its urea because it is landlocked ○ Marine reptiles and birds ■ Excrete through kidneys ● Temperature ○ Affects: metabolisms, enzymatic reactions, membrane properties, activity, growth, distribution, digestive rates, behavior, health ○ Ectothermic­­ body temperature is a product of the external environment ○ Endothermic­­ body temperature is determined by the metabolic furnace ○ Poikilothermic­­ changing body temperature ○ Homeothermic­­ consistent body temperature ○ Mammals, birds, some turtles, and two groups of fishes (Scombridae and Laminidae) are endotherms ○ Why are most aquatic animals ectotherms ■ Water has a high specific heat and high thermal conductivity ■ 3000 times the capacity as air for absorbing heat ○ Endotherms ■ Mammals­­ blubber and hair/fur ■ Birds­­ feathers ■ Fish­­ counter­current heat exchange in gills, swim bladder, and heater organs ● Scombrid tuna and Lamnid sharks ○ Vessels close to skin surface ○ Run from warm core to outer vessels (cold) ○ Red muscle ■ For sustained activity ■ Cruising ■ Lots of blood present; myoglobin ■ Use oxidative metabolism ○ White muscle ■ Burst performance ■ Uses mostly glycogen ■ Respire anaerobically

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 3.2, Problem 4 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach
Edition: 2
Author: Lawrence E. Spence
ISBN: 9780131871410

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach, edition: 2. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 4 from chapter: 3.2 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/27/17, 07:57PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 34 chapters, and 2741 solutions. The answer to “In Exercises I- I 0. evaluate the determinant of each matrix using a cofactor expansion along rile indicmed column.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 19 words. Since the solution to 4 from 3.2 chapter was answered, more than 264 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Elementary Linear Algebra: A Matrix Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780131871410.

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Answer: In Exercises I- I 0. evaluate the determinant of each matrix using a cofactor