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Abnormal Psychology—Week 12 Notes (11/4-13/4) Monday, April 11 I. Personality Disorders cont. A. Social Anxiety vs. Avoidant Personality Disorder 1. Avoidant personality disorder has more severe symptoms and functional impairment. The primary difference is the clinical severity B. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (Cluster C) 1. Preoccupation with rules, structure, and orderliness 2. Miserly with money and saves for future catastrophes 3. Doesn’t want to work with others unless they are in control 4. Pack-rats even with non-sentimental things 5. Rigid and stubborn 6. Extreme devotion to productivity and exclude leisure activities C. Five-Factor Model (acronym: OCEAN) 1. Openness 2. Conscientiousness 3. Extraversion 4. Agreeableness 5. Neuroticism 6. Each aspect of this model has highs and lows D. Developmental Factors for Personality Disorders 1. Controversial before the age of 18 2. Personality disorders can be tracked back to childhood and adolescent behavior 3. Emotional distress and psychological impairment 4. Aversive parental behavior 5. Conduct disorder in adolescence E. Comorbidity and Functional Impairment 1. Impact on interpersonal relationships 2. Distress caused to surrounding people 3. Occupational problems (issues getting and keeping a job) 4. Bad job performance and high risk of being fired F. Epidemiology 1. Diagnostic interviews and self-reports are used to measure and follow personality disorders 2. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most common with a rate of 7.8% G. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity 1. Antisocial personality disorder and narcissism are more commonly found in men 2. Dependent, avoidant, and histrionic disorders are more common in women 3. Borderline is more common in Hispanics and non-whites from low SES H. Etiology 1. Biological i. Personality components are genetic ii. Trauma iii. Brain structure and functioning iv. Higher fear detection threshold 2. Psychological i. Lack of parental acceptance, high rates of abuse, etc. (psychodynamic theory) ii. Learning, molded by the environment (cognitive behavioral theory) iii. Culture and personality are mixed in one’s expression of personality and language (socio-cultural theory) I. Treatment of Personality Disorders 1. Psychological i. CBT ii. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) iii. Inpatient therapy 2. Biological i. Medication including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and atypical antipsychotics