You travel from point A to point B in a car moving at aconstant speed of 70 km/h. Then you travel the samedistance from point B to another point C, moving at a constantspeed of 90 km/h. Is your average speed for the entire tripfrom A to C 80 km/h? Explain why or why not.
The 1790s: the Republic Exchange Pierre Charles L’Efant “Peter” French leader who fought in revolutionary war. He stayed in US as a civil engineer later. After the ratification of the Constitution, the colonist passed the Residence Act that created a new federal district. L’Efant designed the new capital which is the city of Washington in Columbia (Washington DC). Peter gave the ideology of the grand design of the new world. In reality, this is a bad place to live [hot, muddy]. The Early Republic The 1790’s is the period of Early Republic Full of problems confronting a new republic. The nation divided this into questions. Major Themes Republican Presidency, Republican Culture [George Washington’s Republic as president Hamilton’s America Western Expansion for Foreign Relations Federalist and Republicans [division between sides] Republican Presidency First Choice: Washington was President. o He was the greatest hero of the revolution and seemed perfect for the office. He showed a good disinterest in leadership, but called upon leadership but not inspired. Leaders should not be for own gain. He willingly gave up power at the end of the war. Executive Departments: Washington hired advisors [Hamilton and Jefferson most important] o Henry Knox: Head of War o Alexander Hamilton: Head of Treasury o Thomas Jefferson: Head of State Republican Culture 1789-1791 o Congress ratified Bill of Rights and attached it to the Constitution o Anti-Federalist o Ten Amendments: citizen freedom, and limit government power. Outlined the division of Federalist. Republican Culture o Virtue, Character, Honor o Expect to act with disinterest and for the public good. Women in the new republic o Motherhood o Educated women protected morality. They were expected to teach young people the virtues of being a good citizen in republicanism. Women needed to be educated in order to teach. o Mothers to new generation gained access to more educations. Hamilton’s America Economy in 1790s > increased demands for American goods; growth of transportation facilities; expansion of banking. Central Figure o Alexander Hamilton: born poor but trained as a merchant, sponsored education and studied in NY in 1773. Fought in the revolutionary war under Washington and then became involved with politics. He’s important contributor to the constitution. Hamilton o Aggressive vision for America for manufacture and finance. He wanted to build a strong financial system in the United States o Issued Report on Public Credit (1790) which creation of national debt. Before the debt was divided by states. o Madison and Jefferson opposed [the plan went through from compromise]. The compromise was to move Washington to North Virginia Second Part of the Vision o Bank of United States, chartered in 1791. This was a for the strong banking system with a central bank that hold deposits of government and make loans; o Lead to controversy with anti-bank sentiments Final Part o Using government power to control the manufacture business through tariffs and subsidies. Tariffs are taxes on imports, and that should lead people to use the US people to pay less when using US shipping and manufacturing. Radical notion in agricultural-based nation. 1794 o Some were frustrated from the new plan. Farmers were upset because taxes on Whisky production and they refused to pay. This lead to the Whisky Rebellion in response, and they refused to pay the taxes [like Shay’s Rebellion]. Washington raised troops to put down the rebellion. o Rebellion ended without blood and this sent a message. The message was that the government won’t back down and will use authority. Western Expansion and Foreign Relations Western expansion was still a major issue. o Washington tried to settle relations with Natives. This lead to Treaty of New York with creek Indians in 1790. Future relations > o Northwest Territory events. American won against tribes of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Even though there was an attempt to sign a treaty, the treaty was continuously broken by US citizens and US government. 1798 o French Revolution, divided Americans; many supported France initially [since they help defeat British], but slowly some American lost sympathy for the French. This lead to “Reign of Terror” which change American minds Washington o Decided he wanted no part early on since Britain asked for war against France. In 1794 Washington sent John Jay to negotiate a new treaty with Great Britain, and his treaty (Jays Treaty) was hated by many American because it helps Britain. Haitian Revolution o Began in 1791. Many slaves wanted to rebel and some American were sympathetic to slaves, but Southerners were too fearful of slave rebellion with violence. Federalist and Republicans 1790s o Two major groups emerged, main divisions in American political life o Federalist and Jeffersonian Republicans Federalist o Included Washington and Hamilton o Pro-British, conservative, suspicious of democracy, supportive of centralized authority Republicans o Included Jefferson and Madison, pro-French, more radical in support of liberty and democracy, resistant to centralized authority. o Jefferson is known as leader of Republicans o They viewed things like Hamilton’s economic plan with great suspicions. This shows a different way to where the country should be headed. 1796 o Washington relinquish power for a second time and served two terms in office. His replacement was John Adams who was elected president [central figure in American revolution, and the lawyer who defended British soldiers at Boston massacre] o John Adams > became identified as a Federalism Adam’s Presidency o Continued neutrality of Washington against British and France. French was upset with Jay Treaty and tried to bribe US to change their treaty. Adams used this to settle a quasi-war which emerged between France and US. There was no bloodshed. Attempt to stifle dissent o Congress could throw people in jail to criticize central government. This lead to a brawl between federalist and republicans Response to Acts o Jefferson and Madison wrote Kentucky and Virginia Resolution> argued that the states had authority to nullify federal legislation; important idea for later movements. o Adam > never recovered from events; betrayed by Hamilton, attacked by Jefferson. Conclusion Washington’s presidency focused on supply in a republican model of leadership Hamilton proposed ideas for finances Wester expansion and foreign relations was at forefront of political ideas. Next Time: Jeffersonian America