In the design of a rapid transit system, it is necessary tobalance the average speed of a train against the distancebetween stops. The more stops there are, the slower thetrains average speed. To get an idea of this problem, calculatethe time it takes a train to make a 9.0-km trip in twosituations: (a) the stations at which the trains must stop are1.8 km apart (a total of 6 stations, including those at theends); and (b) the stations are 3.0 km apart (4 stationstotal). Assume that at each station the train accelerates at arate of 1.1 m/s2 until it reaches 95 km/h, then stays at thisspeed until its brakes are applied for arrival at the nextstation, at which time it decelerates at -2.0 m/s2. Assume itstops at each intermediate station for 22 s.
Lecture 11: February 16, 2016 Resilience The ability to maintain normal services and lives after a major event. If disruption occurs, rapid recovery with minimal social disruption. Final state of affairs are better or as good as before the event. Identify vulnerable facilities/systems. Earthquake Early Warning depends on info from the p-Wave. Seismic waves travel _______ in liquids than in solids. o S-waves don’t travel through liquid. Refraction happens when a seismic wave bends as it travels from one kind of material to the other. The division between the liquid outer core and the solid inner core is determined by: o The geotherm and the melting temperature of the core material. Lecture 12: February 18, 2016 Intraplate Earthquakes – earthquakes that appear away from plate boundaries. o Adirondacks o New Madrid o Eastern Canada Intraplate earthquakes may preferentially occur along weak zones, such as former fault zones. Intraplate earthquakes may be linked to: o Glacial Isostatic Adjustment o Sediment Erosion o Human Activity Intraplate earthquakes have the same type of seismic hazards as interpolate earthquakes. Interplate Earthquakes – earthquakes that appear on plate boundaries. Stress Loading Regional Tectonics Density Contrasts Local Topography Intersection of Faults Induced Seismicity Dams/Reservoirs Hydraulic Fracturing Waste Water Reinjection Earthquakes linked to hydraulic fracturing may cause changes in pore pressure.