(Ill) (a) Use Keplers second law to show that the ratio of thespeeds of a planet at its nearest and farthest points from theSun is equal to the inverse ratio of the near and far distances:v^/vp = dF/dN. (b) Given that the Earths distance from theSun varies from 1.47 to 1.52 X 1011 m, determine the minimumand maximum velocities of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun.
BIOLOGY 1082 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE The fuctional equivalent of arteries and veins in plants are: A. Roots and Shoots B. Xylem and Ohloem C. Stomata and Trichomes D. Parechyma and Collenchyma ___ are used to allow gas exchange in leaves whereas __ are used to maximize water uptake in roots. A. Stomata, root hairs B. Xylem, root hairs C. Stomata, phloem D. Trichomes, xylem The outer layer of cells that protects the plant is called the A. Cascular Tissue B. Endoderm C. Epidermis D. Pericycle Plant cells that give rise to two cells, one of which is free to differentiate into various kinds of cells that contribute to the plant body, are called A. Endodermal Cells B. Primary Cells C. Lateral Cells D. Parenchyma Cells E. Meristematic Cells __ cells function when dead A. Parenchyma B. Schlerenchyma C. Collenchyma D. Phloem Of the following structures, which one is not made of specialized leaf cells A. Sclereids B. Guard Cells C. Trichomes D. Tendrils E. Spines In certain plants, some of the roots may be modified to carry out unusual functions. Which of these is not an example of one of these special functions A. Move the plant B. Help absorb oxygen C. Store food D. Parasitize other plants E. Store water A birdhouse is nailed into a tree 6 feet up from the ground. If the tree grows about 2 feet taller each year, where will the birdhouse be 25 years later A. 2 feet B. 6 feet C. 12 feet The waterproof cuticle covering the epidermis of land plants helps prevent dehydration, much like the skin of some land animals. As a consequence, what other evolutionary adaptation was important for most land plants A. Endodermis in the root B. Root hairs on the root epidermis C. Collenchyma fibers just beneath the surface of the epidermis D. Stomata in the leaves Which of the following does not function as a site of active cell division A. Shoot apical meristem B. Root apical meristem C. Parenchyma meristem D. Cork cambium In plants with only primary growth, the epidermis is not A. One cell thick B. The outer protective coating of the plant C. Covered by a waxy layer that constitutes the cuticle D. Covered with bark Primary growth in plants originates in A. Apical meristems B. Lateral meristems C. Vascular cambium D. Cork cambium E. Tracheids Which of the following cell types is not directly involved in transport, i.e. part of xylem and phloem A. Parenchyma B. Vessel elements C. Sieve tube elements D. Tracheids E. Compainian cells The widening of a tree trunk is mostly due to the activity of its A. Apical meristem B. Secondary phloem C. Vascular cambium D. Primary xylem Photosynthesis occurs in __ cells. A. Parenchyma B. Sclerenchyma C. Collenchyma D. Phloem Which of the following consists of dead cells with thick cell walls, that are primarily used to support the plant A. Parenchyma B. Collenchyma C. Schlerenchyma D. Trienchyma Which of these structure-function pairs is incorrect A. Stomata-regulate gas exchange B. Trichomes-repel herbivores C. Cuticle-layer of cells where light reactions occur D. Guard cells-control stomatal pore size Which of these actions describes secondary growth A. Growth in height B. Development of fruit C. Development of leaves and flowers D. Development of wood and bark Most of the water absorbed by the plant enters through the A. Root apical meristem B. Root cap C. Root hairs D. Stomata E. Lenticels The main source of water necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the leaf mesophyll is A. Soil via the xylem B. Soil via the phloem C. The atmosphere through the stomata D. The atmosphere through the cuticle Most of the water that evaporates from leaves passes out through the A. Cuticle B. Ends of xylem vessels C. Epidermis D. Spaces between epidermal cells E. Stomata Water tends to move into a cell that has a A. High turgor pressure due to cell wall rigidity B. High, positive water potential C. More negative water potential than its surroundings D. Low turgor pressure Which of the following is part of the apoplast A. Cell wall B. Plasma Membrane C. Plasmodesma D. Cytoplasm Cell Wall The Casparian Strip is: A. Layer of endodermal cells B. Layer of epidermal cells C. The apoplast D. The symplast E. The waxy layer between endodermal cells What is the function of the Caparian strip in the root A. It protects the surface of the root but allows water to be absorbed. B. It allows for horizontal transport of water and nutrients. C. It is the portion of the root that contains numerous root hairs. D. It is an internal water-proofed layer that prevents water and minerals from moving through intercellular spaces on their way to the vascular tissue. E. It seals the surface of the roots that have been damaged. The movement of water up the stems of tall plants is least dependent on which of the following factor A. Root pressure B. Transpiration C. Cohesion of water molecule D. Water tension within the xylem According to the pressure flow model, during fruit development photosynthesizing leaves are the __ and the fruit are the __. A. Sink, sink B. Sink, source C. Source, source D. Source, sink When sugars are actively transported into a cell, what happens to the turgor pressure inside that cell A. It increase, because sugar concentration directly affects turgor pressure. B. It increases, because water enters and affects turgor pressure. C. It decrease, because water exits and affects turgor pressure. D. It decreases, because sugar concentration directly affects tugor pressure. Which of the following statements about transport through phloem is true A. Transport only occurs from the roots to the shoot. B. The direction of flow can change at different times if the sources and sinks change. C. No energy is required. D. Mostly dissolved starch is transported. In which of the following conditions do plants close their stomata A. Bright sunlight B. Water stress C. Low CO2 D. Lack of wind Which of the following affects stomatal opening and closing (Can be more than one) A. Abscisic acid levels B. Light levels C. Water levels D. CO2 levels E. Temperature To maintain guard cell turgor, which of the following must occur A. Potassium ions are pumped out. B. Energy is constantly expended. C. Water exits by osmosis. D. Stomata take up oxygen. E. Transpiration occurs. The root of a carrot serves as A. Only a translocation sink B. Only a translocation source C. Both a translocation source and sink. D. Only a transpiration source If a stem is cut, what will occur if the xylem sap is under tension A. Xylem sap will spurt out B. Xylem sap will stay at the cut surface C. Air will be pulled into the xylem D. The cut surface will form bubbles if places under water Which of these is not a reason that aphids feed on phloem instead of xylem A. Phloem is under positive pressure, so when the aphid pierces a phloem tube, sap is pushed into its mouth. B. Xylem is under negative pressure, so it would be very difficult to suck the fluids. C. Phloem contains higher concentrations of sugars. D. Xylem contains mostly water and fewer nutrients. E. Phloem cells do not have a cell wall, allowing the aphids easy access. Which of the following is true regarding transport in phloem A. Transport in phloem is always in the direction of leaves to roots. B. Transport in phloem is from source tissue to sink tissue C. Transport in phloem requires no energy inputs from the plant D. Root pressure is the primary force driving phloem transport Which of the following is true of both xylem transport and phloem transport A. Both are passive processes that do not require energy from the plant. B. Both involve only living cells. C. Both rely on a gradient of water potential D. The direction of flow is usually reversible in both To initiate stomatal opening, K+ ions A. Passively diffuse into guard cells B. Passively diffuse out of guard cells C. Are pumped into guard cells D. Are actively transported out of guard cells Transport through both the xylem and the phloem A. Stops if the tissue is killed B. Can occur simultaneously in both direction C. Requires negative pressure (tension) D. Involves long, thin channels Which of the following is not transported within the plant by the xylem and or the phloem A. Dissolved minerals B. Sucrose C. Growth-regulating hormones D. Water E. Starch Nonvascular land plants have never evolved to the size of vascular plants, most likely because they lack A. A photosynthetic mechanism B. An efficient mode of respiration C. An efficient system from conducting water and minerals D. Nutrient and water absorption mechanisms Which of the following is not a requirement for Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection A. Time B. Genetic variation C. Differential survival and reproduction D. Heredity E. Sexual reproduction What is an essential part of alternation of generations in plants A. Meiosis to produce gametes B. Mitosis to produce gametes C. Fertilization to produce spores D. Fertilization to produce gametes Innate immunity A. is activated immediately upon infection. B. depends on a newly infected animal's previous exposure to the same pathogen C. is based on recognition of antigens that are specific to different pathogens D. is found only in vertebrate animals E. utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B cells Which of the following is unique to the adaptive immune defense system A. cells that ingest invading microbes B. antibody synthesis C. inflammation D. fever The large, irregularly shaped cells that kill bacteria by digesting them are called A. monocytes B. erythrocytes C. macrophages D. bacteriophages E. antibodies The molecule that provokes a specific immune response is a/an A. antigen B. lymphocyte C. antibody D. lysozyme When an individual is first exposed to the small pox virus, several days pass before significant numbers of specific antibody molecules and T cells are produced. However, a second exposure to the virus causes large and rapid production of antibodies and T cells. This response is an example of A. antigenic determinants B. phagocytosis C. interferon production D. immunological memory Immunologist can breed mice that lack ___ in order to compare the immune response of normal mice to those that have no T cells. A. a thymus B. a spleen C. bone marrow D. kidneys E. a liver The lymphatic fluid A. is a filtrate of the blood, as is urine B. is completely separate from the circulatory system for blood C. carries both red and white blood cells D. functions in adaptive immunity but not in innate immunity E. carries a toxic gas that kills cancerous cells An epitope is A. part of the interferons that penetrate foreign cells B. a protein protruding from the surface of B cells C. two structurally similar antibodies dissolved in the blood plasma D. that part of an antigen that actually binds to an antigen receptor E. a mirror image of an antigen The function of antibodies is to A. inject toxins into living pathogens B. secrete cytokines that attract macrophages to infection sites C. release perforins to disrupt infected cells D. mark pathogenic cells for destruction The MHC is important in a T cell's ability to A. distinguish self from nonself B. recognize specific parasitic pathogens C. identify specific bacterial pathogens D. identify specific viruses E. recognize differences among types of cancer When a T cell is activated by an antigen, it will most likely A. secrete antibodies B. proliferate C. die D. become a hybridoma E. become a plasma cell Which of the following is not part of the inflammatory response A. Histamine and other chemicals are released, which produce redness, warmth, and edema B. Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages attack the invading microbes and contribute to the pus C. Antibodies and interferons are produced against the antigens D. Invading agent causes the release of pyrogens, which produce a fever Which of the following components of the immune system destroys bacteria in a way similar to an antitank weapon destroying armored military tanks by punching holes in the wall of the bacteria A. Complement proteins B. Macrophages C. Plasma cells D. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins In the humoral response, B cells produce plasma cells, which in turn produce large quantities of ___ that are specific for foreign antigens A. agglutination B. interferons C. antibodies D. macrophages ___ are molecules released by activated helper T cells. A. Antigens B. Immunoglobulins C. Cytokines D. Antibodies Which of the following release histamines A. Red blood cells B. Mast cells C. B-cells D. T-cells E. Plasma cells The immune response is mostly coordinated by A. suppressor T cells B. cytotoxic T cells C. inducer T cells D. helper T cells A certain cell type has existed in the blood and tissue of its vertebrate host's immune system for over 20 years. One day, it recognizes a newly arrived antigen and binds to it, subsequently triggering a secondary immune response in the body. Which of the following cell types most accurately describes this cell A. B cell B. T cell C. Memory cell D. Macrophage Which of the following is a difference between B cells and T cells A. One has a major role in antibody production, while the other has a major role in cytotoxicity. B. One uses a receptor called BCR, while the other recognizes a receptor called TCR. C. B cells are activated by free-floating antigens in the blood or lymph. T cells are activated by membrane-bound antigens. D. T cells are produced in the thymus and B cells are produced in the bone marrow. Which of the following do Helper T-cells not directly carry out A. Phagocytosis B. Activate B-cells C. Activate cytotoxic T cells D. Produce cytokines When an antigen first challenges the immune system, if the primary immune response produces B cells, what are the fates of those B cells I-Some of the B cells become plasma cells that secrete antibodies II-Some of the B cells become memory cells and can produce a swifter response if the body encounters that particular antigen again III-Some of the B cells secrete chemicals called pyrogens that travel to the brain inducing a fever A. just II B. just I C. II and III D. I and II E. I, II, and III Which of the following is a function of excretory systems A. They help regulate osmotic potential and the volume of extracellular fluids B. They excrete molecules that are present in excess C. They conserve molecules that are valuable or in short supply D. All of the above The reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, and many other molecules needed by the body is driven by ___. A. active transport carries B. diffusion C. facilitated diffusion D. homeostasis The per capita rate of increase of a population is given the symbol A. r B. N C. K D. dN/dt E. (K-N)/K If the rate of increase (r) of a population is zero, then the population A. will soon b extinct B. is increasing in size C. is decreasing in size D. is stable in size Which of the following represents the correct ranking of dispersion patterns, from the greatest to least expected difference between one individual and its nearest neighbor A. Random, clumped, regular B. Random, regular, clumped C. Regular, random, clumped D. Regular, clumped, random E. Clumped, regular, random F. Clumped, random, regular The worldwide rate of human population growth is 1.3% and for the US the growth rate is 0.6%. How will the US population change relative to the world population A. World will grow, US will decline B. World will grown, US will be stable C. Both will grow, but US will grow more slowly D. World will decline, US will increase Resource competition, territoriality, disease, and toxic wastes are some of the factors that provide _____ and help regulate population. A. Negative feedback B. Population dynamics C. Metapopulations D. Positive feedback E. Zero population growth Which of the following is regarded as a density-independent factor in the growth of natural populations A. Predation B. Interspecific Competition C. Intraspecific Competition D. Flooding