(II) What is the magnitude and direction of the gravitationalfield midway between the Earth and Moon? Ignore effectsof the Sun.
GLBL 210 Notes 4/4/16-4/6/16 4/4/16: Marissa Hall Guest Lecture - WHO defines health as complete physical, mental, and social well-being o Not just absence of disease o Social and mental health correlated with physical health - Health is human right o Outlined in Universal Declaration of Human Rights - 4 of UN Millennium Development Goals deal directly with health o Health as prerequisite for many other goals - Measurements of health: o Life expectancy (doesn’t take into account living with disease) o Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) Morbidity (living with disease) and mortality Years life lost plus years living with disease/disability - Top 10 causes of death worldwide: o Heart disease o Stroke o COPD o Lower respiratory disease o Lung cancer o HIV/AIDs o Diarrheal disease o Diabetes o Road injury - Different causes of death in high vs. low income countries - Risk transitions: disease causes shift with development/progress, traditional risks modern risks (ex. malaria road injury) o Medical improvements o Population ageing o Public health interventions - Non-communicable disease (NCD’s): not infectious, not transmissible between people, chronic disease o General world transition to NCD’s (modern risks) o More deaths due to NCD’s in low and middle-income countries - Socio-ecological model: how to approach health problem o Different levels of risk factors: Individual knowledge, attitudes, skill Interpersonal: social networks Organizational: environment, surroundings Community: cultural values Public policy: paws, regulations o Expand thinking about why people have diseases o Ex. diabetes: Individual: self-efficacy to exercise Interpersonal: family attitudes toward exercise Organizational: availability of recreational facilities Community: social norms around exercise Public policy: workplace policy compensating gym membership fees o Class activity example: malaria Individual: lack of education of causes Interpersonal: few health professional to teach/treat Organizational: lack of mosquito nets Community: belief in other treatments, religion/sorcery Public policy: no requirements for prevention (household/business/structural requirements for nets) Possible solutions: access to nets, medication, and healthcare facilities - Health impact pyramid: 5 tier pyramid from reading o Socioeconomic factors o Changing context to make default decisions healthier o Long-lasting protective interventions (ex. vaccines) o Clinical interventions o Counseling/education o Lower levels have more impact Reach more people, doesn’t require as much individual effort o Examples of changing context to make default decisions healthier: cleaner water, fluoridating water, putting health foods near check-out counter, warning labels on cigarette packets - Most effective combative strategy: o Cost-effective o Population-level o Address multiple risk factors - Honduras research application: contraception use o More difficult for rural/poor women to meet contraceptive needs o US levels of unplanned pregnancy similar to Honduras o Honduran Health Alliance (HHA) clinic to provide access to care, prevention, screenings o Interviewed and conducted focus groups with rural women o Focused on social determinants of health Conditions in which people live (especially health system) Shaped by power/economic distribution o Many women use multiple methods o Women had positive attitudes toward family planning Believed life is easier for smaller families Difficult to allocate resources among larger families because la situación economica o Barriers to contraceptive use: Individual/interpersonal barriers: ideas about side effects, men’s attitudes toward contraceptive use Positive attitudes toward own partners, negative attitudes toward other men in community Organization/public policy barriers: longer-lasting methods unavailable in rural areas, frequently out of stock, difficult to travel to places to access other methods (time-consuming, dangerous, expensive) 4/6/16: Guest Lecturer Dale Evarts - Evidence for climate change: o Thousands of peer-reviewed studies o Continuous process of inquiry and discovery o State of climate science reports: summaries of recent research on climate change Done by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change o 10 indicators of warming world: Sea ice decreasing Rising sea levels Increased water vapor The rest are on PowerPoint uploaded to Sakai o Human activities effects: Natural carbon cycle: balance between addition and removal of CO2 Humans increase CO2 concentration and decrease areas able to sequester carbon - Global greenhouse gas emission trends: o Electricity, agriculture, transportation are main economic sectors of emissions o China has highest emissions - Impacts of climate change: o Rising temps o Increased precipitation Can cause flooding and increased water levels o Habitat loss o Extreme weather o Species changes and distribution o Impacts vary by region Ex. Alaska has less snow, increased forest fires in Midwest - Conventional pollutants: o Particulate matter Black carbon: what is seen coming out of diesel trucks, not long-lasting Ozone: also short-lived o Methane: in the middle of short and long-lived o Long-lived pollutants: CO2, nitrous oxide o Possible solution: increase carbon sinks Ex. planting trees, increasing algae in oceans o Many different sources of short-;lived pollutants Have ability to control them Able to help air quality and climate control - International efforts to address climate change: o UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992- countries try to limit average global temps Kyoto Protocol: legally binds members to emissions restrictions (only binds developed countries) o Building Post-2020 Global Agreement: Agreed to limit global warming to 2 degrees C (3.6 F) Must reduce emissions by 80% by 2050 o Questions addressed in Paris Agreement: Is 2 degrees C sufficient to avoid catastrophic events What would developing countries commit vs. developed countries Common goal, but differentiated responsibilities How to hold countries accountable for commitments What funding would developed countries contribute How to update targets with new technology and ambition - Negotiating global agreement: o Must be consensus in all aspects Every country must agree, so one nation can alter outcomes - US and China joint-agreement to reduce carbon pollution: o China agreed to peak emissions by 2030 - US Clean Power Plan: o Proposed regulations to reduce CO2 emissions and particulate pollution o Climate and health benefits will outweigh costs - Sample policies o Promote renewable energy o Promote energy efficiency o Urban planning to reduce energy demand o Electric transportation instead of fossil fuels - Paris Agreement to be signed April 22 o Also ratify to ensure country can actually follow through