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A science-fiction tale describes an artificial | Ch 6 - 69

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus) ISBN: 9780133942651 188

Solution for problem 69 Chapter 6

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 69

A science-fiction tale describes an artificial planet in theform of a band completely encircling a sun (Fig. 6-31). Theinhabitants live on the inside surface (where it is alwaysnoon). Imagine that this sun is exactly like our own, that thedistance to the band is the same as the Earth-Sun distance(to make the climate temperate), and that the ring rotatesquickly enough to produce an apparent gravity of g as onEarth. What will bethe period of revolution,this planetsyear, in Earth days?

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Julia Delaluz BIOL 120 Week 6 Notes 3/21­25 Diversity of Life  There are many different kinds of living things on the planet  Some are very different from one another, but some are very similar­ Why The Unity of Life  Today scientists agree that all living things on earth share a common ancestor  All existing types of life today developed from said common ancestor  The differences arose from differences in environments, and by chance  These ideas form the basis of evolutionary theory The Tree of Life  The common ancestor is like a tree trunk  Current species = top branches  Major groupings correspond to more recent divergences  The closer the branches = the more two species are related  Lower branches = diverged long ago, Higher branches = more recent  DNA comparison is one way to determine species’ relatedness  Theory of Common Descent^  Universal Tree of Life  Biological classification­ scientists attempt to organize bio­diversity into discrete and logical categories  Living organisms represent a small remnant of all the species that have appeared over Earth’s history History of Systematics  Aristotle 2000 years ago  Classify as plant or animal  Linnaeus- early 1700s  2 Kingdoms: animalia, vegetabilia  KPCOFGS  Based on shared physical similarities  Binomial nomenclature  Kindgom, Phylom, Class, Order, Family, Genus Species- scientific name Taxonomy is based on:  DNA: the more closely related the DNA, the more closesly realted the organisms Julia Delaluz BIOL 120 Week 6 Notes 3/21­25  Homology: common structures in differing organisms that may result from common ancestry The Classification of Life (table) Cladogram: Linnaean Classification of Humans: What is Evolution  A process of change in the characteristic of a population of organisms over the course of generations  An organizing theory: o all species present today are descendants of a common ancestry and represent millions of years of microevolution through natural selection Evolutionary Theory  Changes in organisms over time  Collectively- all the change that transform life on earth  Producing diversity of organisms  A genetically based phenotypic chance in population of organisms over successive generations Evidence for Evolution  Fossils  Comparative anatomy Julia Delaluz BIOL 120 Week 6 Notes 3/21­25  Comparative embryology  Biogeography  Molecular biology  Together = all evidence supports theory of evolution Evidence from the Fossil Record  Over time, the organic material in living things that have been buried Evidence of Homology  Homology: the similarity in characteristics that have resulted from common ancestry  Test can help determine if Linnaean classifications are correct about similarities between organisms o Behavior, DNA, and physical structure (anatomy) can be observed and tested  Divergence: comparable body parts became modified in different ways in different lines of descent from a common ancestor o Same structure, looks different b/c different function o Ex: sea lion flipper bones, human arm bones  Convergence: different structure, but looks similar b/c same function o Ex: bat wings, eagle wings  Vestigial traits: useful in other animals, useless in others (used to be useful) o Ex: tailbone- useful in primates, useless in humans, goosebumps useful for birds, useless for humans Evidence from Biogeography  Pattern of distribution of species on the continents is called biogeography  Biogeographic patterns support common descent  Species do not develop separately, each in the best way for that environment. o Species more closely match those that are geographically nearby, even when the environments for the two differ a good deal Using Molecules to Track Evolution  Homology in Biochemistry o A comparison of the sequences of dozens of genes that are fund in humans and other primates demonstrates the same pattern of relationship Julia Delaluz BIOL 120 Week 6 Notes 3/21­25  Molecular Clock o Used to calculate the time of origin on one lineage relative to others, assuming that the lineage accumulates neutral mutations at predictable rates o The molecular clock hypothesis states that the rate of change in some DNA sequences seems to be relatively constant o One application suggests that a 1% difference in overall DNA sequence is generated in about 5 to 6 million years  “The Great Chain of Being”- Aristotle o Puts forth that the universe is perfect and there is no change. All species are in order, from the “lowest” (worms) to “highest” (humans)  Linnaeus “Father of Taxonomy” o Classified species, believed in unchanging order of life created by God  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck o Wrote “Philosophie Zoologique” 1809 o Stated that animals evolved from simpler forms o Saw evolution as a goal-oriented process striving towards perfection o Believed in the inheritance of acquired traits o First to use the terms: invertebrate & biology  Charles Darwin o Promoted theory of evolution in mid-1800s, went on ship voyage- o 1859 “On the Origin of Species”- how does evolution occur Answered o Charles Lyell- 1830 “Principles of Geography”  Tortoises long neck short neck different islands (Galapagos) o After voyage, Darwin concluded that different subspecies on different islands must have evolved form a single ancestral population  Hypothesis of common descent- all modern organisms are descendent from a single common ancestor

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Chapter 6, Problem 69 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics
Edition: 4
Author: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)
ISBN: 9780133942651

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A science-fiction tale describes an artificial | Ch 6 - 69