(II) Two point charges, Q\ = 25 /jlC and Q2 = +45 fxC,are separated by a distance of 12 cm. The electric field at thepoint P (see Fig. 21-58) is zero. How far from Qi is P?
ANTH 1101 – Week 12 Chapter 13 relatedness – the socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of different ways kinship systems – social relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance marriage – an institution that transforms the status of the participants, carries implications about permitted sexual access, perpetuates social patterns through the birth of offspring, creates relationships between the kin of partners, and is symbolically marked descent – the principle based on culturally recognized parent-child connections that define the social categories to which people belong adoption – kinship relationships based on nurturance, often in the absence of other connections based on mating or birth sex – observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females and males, needed for biological reproduction gender – the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex bilateral descent – the principle that a descent group is formed by people who believe that they are related to each other by connections made through their mothers and fathers equally (sometimes called cognatic descent) lineages – the consanguineal members of descent groups who believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors patrilineage – a social group formed by people connected by father-child links matrilineage – a social group formed by people connected by mother-child links clan – a descent group formed by members who believe they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical links segmentary opposition – a mode of hierarchical social organization in which groups beyond the most basic emerge only in opposition to other groups on the same hierarchal level bridewealth – the transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride on the occasion of their marriage. It represents compensation to the wife’s linage for the loss of her labor and childbearing capacities affinity – connection through marriage collaterally – criterion employed in the analysis of kinship terminologies in which a distinction is made between kin who are believe to be in a direct line and those who are “off to one side,” linked to the speaker by a lineal relative bifurcation – a criterion employed in the analysis of kinship terminologies which kinship terms referring to the mother’s side of the family are distinguished from those referring to the father’s side parallel cousins – the children of a person’s parents’ same-gender siblings (a father’s brother’s children or a mother’s sister’s children) cross cousins – the children of a person’s parents’ opposite gender siblings (a father’s sister’s children or a mother’s brother’s children) ascribed statuses – social positions people are assigned at birth achieved statuses – social positions people may attain later in life, often as the result of their own (or other people’s effort) marriage – an institution that transforms the status of the participants, carries implications about permitted sexual access, perpetuates social patterns through the birth of offspring, creates between the kin of partners, and is symbolically marked affinal relationships – kinship connections through marriage, or affinity consanguineal relationships – kinship connections based on descent endogamy – marriage within a defined social group exogamy – marriage outside a defined social group neolocal residence – a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple sets up an independent household at a place of their own choosing patrilocal residence – a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple lives with (or near) the husband’s father matrilocal residence - a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple lives with (or near) the wife’s mother avunculocal residence – a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple lives with (or near) the husband’s mother’s brother (from avuncular, “of uncles”) monogamy – a marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one spouse at a time polygamy – a marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one spouse at a time polygyny – a marriage pattern in which a man may be married to more than one wife at a time polyandry – a marriage pattern in which a woman may be married to more than one husband at a time bridewealth – the transfer of certain symbolically important foods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride on the occasion of their marriage. It represents compensation to the wife’s lineage for the loss of her labor and childbearing capacities dowry – the wealth transferred, usually from parents to their daughter, at the time of her marriage family – minimally, a woman and her dependent children conjugal family – a family based on marriage; at a minimum, a husband and wife (a spousal pair) and their children nonconjugal family – a woman and her children; the husband/father may be occasionally present or completely absent nuclear family – a family pattern made up of two generations: the parents and their unmarried children extended family – a family pattern made up of three generations living together: parents, married children, and grandchildren joint family – a family pattern made up of brothers and their wives or sisters and their husbands (along with their children) living together blended family – a family created when previously divorced or widowed people marry, bringing them with children from their previous families friendship – the relatively “unofficial” bonds that people construct with one another that tend to be personal, affective, and often a matter of choice sexual practices – emotional or affectional relationships between sexual partners and the physical activities they engage in with one another Lecture – March 28 question asked during class: what is marriage for most common answers: love, companionship, children, God, government, economics, upward mobility incest taboo – rules against committing incest family tree symbols ▲ – males ● – females = -- means marriage | -- means relationship of descent __ -- indication of siblinghood F – father M – mother B – brother Z – sister S – son D – daughter C – cousin A – aunt U – uncle example ▲=● | ▲__●=▲ | ▲ hypergamy – marrying “up”; someone above your status hypogamy – marrying “down”; someone below your status Nuer ghost marriage – if a man dies without heirs, a woman can marry his ghost and take on lovers; the children she has with said lovers are bared in the name of the deceased Lecture – March 30 levirate – brother considered equivalent to one another in terms of marriage sororate – sisters considered equivalent to one another in terms of marriage woman marriage – an older, wealthy Nuer woman marries a younger woman and encourages her to take male lovers and have children in the wealthy woman’s name (thus becoming a “female father”) minor marriage – a practice in Southeast China where a family with a daughter but no sons will adopt a boy as their son and later marry him to their daughter, whom he was raised with adoption – bringing someone into a family and creating a legal relationship of parenthood Arthur Wolf – anthropologist in Southeast China who studied minor marriages; hypothesized that during the period of childhood (0-5 yrs.), children who were raised together will develop a sexual aversion to each other Preference/legality on one hand, practice on the other (ex. Polygamy being legal in Egypt but not very common) fictive kinship – the use of ideas of kinship to transfer to other people (ex., calling a close family friend your “aunt” or “uncle”) Eskimo system – kinship system that names relatives; carves out the nuclear family distinctions in the Eskimo system: lineal/collateral affinal/consanguine generation gender status lineal relatives – exist within line of descent (parents, self, children, etc.) collateral relatives – exist on either side of line of descent (uncles, cousins, etc.) affinal relatives – relatives by marriage (sister-in-law, father-in-law, etc.) consanguineal relatives – relatives by blood Hawaiian kinship system – only distinctions are generation and gender (one refers to all of their uncles as their “father,” their cousins as their “sister/brother,” etc.)