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(Ill) A thin rod of length carries a total charge

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus) ISBN: 9780133942651 188

Solution for problem 53 Chapter 21

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 53

(Ill) A thin rod of length carries a total charge Qdistributed uniformly along its length. See Fig. 21-67.Determine the electric fieldalong the axis of the rod starting vat one endthat is, find E(x) u----p---- ^for x > 0 in Fig. 21-67.

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Chapter 9: Water and Minerals Friday, April 1, 2016 11:03 AM  Water o Life cannot exist without water. o Water is a solvent for the chemicals in the body, allowing chemical reactions to take place. o Water makes up 50-70% of the body's weight. o Cannot survive long without water.  Fluid Components o Intracellular Fluid: Water inside the cell o Extracellular Fluid: Water outside the cell o Water can diffuse between compartments. o  Fluid Control o Ions control the movement of water between the intracellular and extracellular compartments o Ions are minerals with an electrical charge. They are also called electrolytes. o Osmosis: The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane. o  Functions of Water o Solvent for chemical reactions within the body o Helps regulate temperature with sweat o Helps remove waste products  Waste products dissolves into water o Cushions and lubricates  Knees, joints, saliva, bile  BalancingWater o Water isn't stored in the body. o Water balance is precisely by the nervous, endocrine, digestive, and urinary system  Water Deficiency o 1-2% water loss - Thirst mechanism occurs o How do we conserve water  Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)  Released by the pituitary gland  Communicates with the kidney to conserve water.  Aldosterone  Released from the adrenal gland when blood volume decreases.  Communicates with kidneys to conserve water and salt. o When Thirst is Ignored:  4% water loss - Muscles lose strength and endurance  10-12% water loss - Heat tolerance is decreased  Become nauseous, confused, dizzy  20% water loss - A coma and perhaps death. o Can thirst be ignored  Athletes - Weigh before and after  Sick Children  Older people  Infants  Over Consumption of Water o Too much in a short period of time leads to water intoxication or poison o Dilutes sodium levels - Hyponatremia  Symptoms:  Nausea  Confusion  Vomiting  Headaches  Muscle Weakness  Convulsions  Minerals o Major minerals: > 100 mg a day o Trace minerals: < 100 mg a day o Bioavailability: How much we take in  Depends on:  How much is in the food  Our ability to absorb it  The amount in a food doesn’t generally reflect the bioavailability.  Minerals from plants:  Depends on the soil it's grown in  May be bound by dietary fibers and other molecules  Minerals from animal sources:  Are not as dependent on soil conditions  Absorbed better than plant sources because of fewer binders and fibers o Mineral binders:  Oxalates: Found in spinach; binds calcium  Phytates: Found in grains; binds calcium, iron, zinc, others.  Mineral-Mineral Interactions:  Calcium-Iron; Zinc-Copper  Vitamin-Mineral Interactions:  Vitamin C: Improves iron absorption  Vitamin D: Improves calcium absorption  Mineral Toxicity o Minerals can be toxic in high levels, especially trace minerals o Not a problem when food is the source, but can be from mineral supplements  Major Minerals o Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride, and Magnesium.  Calcium o Most abundant mineral in the body. o 99% of the calcium in the body is in the bones.  Integral rolein the bone structure.  Storehouse for calcium in the blood. o Adults absorb about 25% of the calcium in foods eaten. o Increase in infants and during pregnancy (Up to 60%) o Serum Calcium Functions:  Regulates transport of ions across the cell membrane  Also important in nerve transmission Helps maintain blood pressure   Essential for muscle contractions  Essential for secretion of hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters, etc.  Essential for blood clotting o Possible Health Benefits/Risks:  Certain cancers and kidney stones  Hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity o Osteoporosis: Decreased bone mass related to aging, genetic background, and poor diet.  Leads to 1.5 million bone fractures per year in the U.S.  Occurs in women and men   Bone Density:  Reaches a peak in the twenties  Levels off in the thirties  Lose after forty.  It's important to build up bone density while you are young.   Maintain Bone Density:  Adequate amount of calcium and vitamin D in your diet  Exercising  Estrogen o Calcium in Foods  AI: 1000-1200 mg per day  Foods:  Dairy  Breads, rolls  Leafy greens  Calcium fortified products  Supplements  UL: 2500 mg per day  Sodium o Absorb about 100% of sodium consumed o 30-40% found in the bones o The major positive ion found in the extracellular fluid o Functions:  Fluid balance between compartments  Nerve impulse conduction  Absorption of glucose o Deficiency:  Excessive perspiration  Vomiting  Diarrhea  Leads to muscle cramps, nausea, dizziness, coma o Sensitivity:  For most people, the body will readjust to higher sodium intake by increasing urine output.  10-15% of people have a sodium sensitivity  High sodium intake leads to increased blood pressure.  UL: 2300 mg per day  Chloride o An ion of chlorine o Major negative ion for extracellular fluid o Used in producing stomach acids (HCl) and during immune response of white blood cells.  Potassium o Major positive ion in intracellular fluid compartment.  95% of body's potassium o Important in fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission o Increasing Potassium is associated with lower blood pressure. o Increased risk of deficiency:  People on diuretics to treat high blood pressure  Alcoholics  Certain Eating disorders Can lead to heart failure   Too much - due to kidney failure, can stop heart. o AI: 4700 mg per day o Foods:  Unprocessed Foods  Rich Sources:  Potatoes, plums, avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, raisins  Leafy greens  Trace Minerals o Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Copper, Chromium, Fluoride, etc. o All are toxic in excess.  Iron o In every cell of the body o Absorb about 18% of that present in food. o Most iron associated with hemoglobin (RBC) and myoglobin (Muscle) o When RBC dies, iron is recycled. We lose very little, except during bleeding o Heme-iron is more readily absorbed than non-heme iron. o Vitamin C (75 mg) - enhances absorption of non-heme iron o Tannins in tea and phytates in grain inhibit iron absorption o Sources of heme-iron  Organ meat  Lamb/Mutton  Pork  Fish o Sources of non-heme iron  Nuts  Raisins  Beans o Iron Deficiency  Anemia: Decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.  Lower number of RBC  Less oxygen to the cells  Affects 30% of the world population  1/2 of which is due to low iron  Neurological dysfunction called Pica  Eating weird things (ice, clay, dirt)  Low iron associated anemia  Impaired physical and mental activity  Fatigue, loss of appetite  Decreased learning ability  Decreased attention span o Iron toxicity  Hemochromatosis: A genetic condition characterized with bronzing of the skin. Associated with an increase of iron absorption.  Iron builds up in the blood and liver, which can eventually lead to organ damage, especially the liver and heart. o Avoiding too much Iron  UL: 45 mg a day Stomach irritation, toxicity can be life-threatening.   Zinc o About 40% of dietary zinc is absorbed. o Zinc is a cofactor for up to 200 different enzymes o Functions:  Growth  Wound healing  Sexual maturity  Taste perception  Immune system, indirect antioxidant o Sources:  Oysters  Beef  Lamb  Total (cereal)  Chicken  Clam  High protein diets rich in animal sources are high in zinc. o Zinc Deficiency  First recognized in the 1960s in boys from the middle east  Diet low in animal protein, exclusive use of unleavened bread.  Symptoms:  Acne like rash  Diarrhea  Lack of appetite  Delayed wound healing  Impaired immunity  Reduced sense of taste and smell  Hair loss o Getting Enough Zinc  RDA for men is 11 mg, women is 8 mg.  Average American consumes about 10-14 mg/day  Absorption depends on body needs.  Phytic acid binds to zinc and limits availability  High calcium intake decreases zinc absorption.  Zinc competes with iron and copper for absorption. o Avoiding too much Zinc UL: 40 mg   Excess interferes with copper metabolism  Toxicity can occur from supplementation or over consumption of zinc-fortified foods.  Intake greater than 100 mg results in diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, etc.  Selenium o Indirect antioxidant, works with vitamin E to help protect cell membranes from oxidizing agents. o Binds to enzymes to protect against oxidation. o May have anticancer properties. o Selenium Deficiency Found in certain areas of China   People developed characteristics muscle and heart problems associated with inadequate intake. o RDA: 55 micrograms/day o UL: 400 micrograms/day (hair loss) o Foods:  Fish  Eggs  Shellfish  Grains  Seeds grown in soils containing selenium  Iodide o Ion of iodine o Used in the production thyroid hormone o Thyroid hormone helps regulate metabolic rate, and promotes growth and development. o Iodide Deficiency  Cells of the thyroid enlarge in attempt to trap more iodine. Called Goiter.  People are sluggish and gain weight.  During pregnancy, deficiency can cause extreme and irreversible mental and physical retardation of developing baby.  Can be reversed within the first six months of pregnancy o RDA & DV: 150 micrograms o Most Americans consume more than the RDA o Found mostly in iodized salt. o Too much Iodide:  UL: 1.1 mg  High amounts can inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis.  Copper o 12-75% of copper in the diet is absorbed. o Involvedin the metabolism of iron by functioning in the formation of hemoglobin and transport iron. o Also involved in the formation of connective tissue. o Is a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. o Getting Enough Copper:  Sources include liver, legumes, seeds, whole grain bread, cereals, cocoa  Form found in supplements is not readily absorbed.  Absorption is highly variable.  Higher intakes associated with lower absorption efficiency.  Phytates, fiber, excess zinc and iron supplements interfere with absorption.  AI: 1 mg for women, 1.6 mg for men. o Avoiding too much Copper:  10 mg can cause toxicity.  Symptoms include GI distress, vomiting blood, tarry feces, damage to liver and kidneys.  Toxicity only occurs with supplementation. o Wilson's disease:  A genetic disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the tissues.  Characterized by damage to the liver, nervous system, and other organs. Dietary Supplements  o Regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act established in 1994 (DSHEA) o Established by Congress o Gives FDA the authority to regulate the,. o Established the office of Dietary Supplements under the NIH o DSHEA definition: Vitamin, mineral, herb or another botanical amino acid.  A dietary substance to supplement the diet which could be an extract or a combination of the first four ingredients in the previous definition.  Dietary supplements can be sold without proof that they are safe and effective  Supplement makers ca make broad "structure or function" claims about their products.  Cannot claim to prevent, treat, or cure a disease. o Should you take a supplement  Evidence to support the widespread use of multivitamin and mineral supplements is mixed.  Little risk of harm from consuming a balanced multivitamin  Most studies indicate no discernible advantage.  NIH concluded that the present evidence is insufficientto recommend for or against.  Only a few studies of vitamin and mineral supplementsprevent deficiencies or chronic disease.  High doses of one nutrient can affect absorption or metabolism of other nutrients.  Some supplements can interfere with medications.  The safest and healthiest way to ensure nutrient adequacy is…  Think food first  Fortified foods that can help fill gaps  If supplement use is desired, educate yourself and discuss the choice with your physician or registered dietician  Which Supplements to Choose  Choose nationally recognized brand  Ensure not to exceed the UL from supplements and fortified foods.  Look for the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) seal]  Homeopathic Remedies  Regulated by the FDA  FDA doesn’t evaluate the remedies for safety or effectiveness  Little evidence to support homeopathy as an effective treatment for any specific condition  Must contain active ingredients that are listed in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States (HPUS)

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Chapter 21, Problem 53 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics
Edition: 4
Author: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)
ISBN: 9780133942651

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(Ill) A thin rod of length carries a total charge