When an electric cell is connected to a circuit, electrons flowaway from the negative terminal in the circuit. But withinthe cell, electrons flow to the negative terminal. Explain.
Chapter. 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750- 1914 1. Explaining the Industrial Revolution *Why Europe -Competition within Europe-Smaller states’ competition in Europe versus large, unified Asian & *Middle Eastern empires State-merchant alliances -state support for innovation & merchant groups *Competition with Asian Imports -Threats of less –expensive & superior-quality Asian goods -experiment with labor and cost saving devices *Geography: The American Windfall -easy access to silver, sugar, slaves -essential boost for Europe’s competition with Asia *Why Britain 1. Colonies, commercial society, and political security -Aristocrats engaged in money making entrepreneurial enterprises (unlike the French & Spansh nobility who loathed merchant culture) 2. Practical, not theoretical, science 3. Lucky Geography -Plentiful supplies of coal and iron, near each other -more stable: island location, freed from military campaigns of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era. The industrial Revolution in Britain 1760-1850 *Steam engine-James Watt 1760-1780 Revolutionized British industry -Mobile -versatile -potentially unlimited power Railroads -economic/ social/ environmental/ cultural changes -Requires huge capital outlaws/ promotes public & private credit & investment Industrialization and Urbanization of England 1850 **The first Industrial society -the British aristocracy -middle classes -the laboring (working) classes *The British Aristocracy 1. Landowners remained wealthy -as only a few thousands families owned half the cultivated land in Britain, this class remained wealthy & exerted power in Parliament 2. Overall decline in class power -new sources of urban wealth from entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers began to challenge to old wealth of land The Middle Classes 1. At the upper end: wealth industrialists, bankers, & entrepreneurs; gaining power 2. The lower middle class -clerks, salespeople, and teachers grew -did not pay all that well, nut distinguished the workers from the laboring classes 3. The laboring classes -70% of Britain -suffered the most and gained the least from industrialization -Rapid urbanization: by 1851 the majority of Britain’s lived in cities -New working conditions: cramped, dirty with epidemic diseases -women and girls in the factory -early 19 century, preferred labor -later pushed out of factories or into least prestigious unskilled jobs Classical Liberalism -a belief in small government, education, and the law as guaranteed by constitutions. -Samuel Smiles “Self-Help” *stressed hard work & self-reliance, arguing that poverty was due to a lack of trying and thrift. Women: paragons of “respectability” -“respectability”: “respectable” women should not work and should concern themselves with the domestic sphere D. Social Protest *Robert Owen (1771-1858) -An early experimenter in a form of socialism -promoted decent and spacious housing, higher wages, and education for all children. *Karl Marx’s (1818-1883) “scientific socialism” -argue that capitalism was inherently unstable and would **Luddites and the impacts of technology on labor—they smashed machines because they replaced their jobs E. Europeans in Motion *Migration to cities and other continents -over half to cities in the 19century -20%, 50-55 million people, for overseas destinations during 1815-1939. *Settler colonies in Australia and New Zealand *The United States -30 million Europeans arrived between 1820-1930 -Protestants from Britain and Germany looked down upon later arriving Catholics and Jews from southern and eastern Europe. *Russians and Ukrainians to Siberia.