(II) Small changes in the length of an object can bemeasured using a strain gauge sensor, which is a wire withundeformed length 0, cross-sectional area A 0, andresistance Rq. This sensor is rigidly affixed to the objectssurface, aligning its length in the direction in which lengthchanges are to be measured. As the object deforms, thelength of the wire sensor changes by A, and the resultingchange AR in the sensors resistance is measured. Assumingthat as the solid wire is deformed to a length i, its density(and volume) remains constant (only approximately valid),show that the strain (= A/0) of the wire sensor, and thusof the object to which it is attached, is AR/2R0.
Midterm Exam II Study Guide Part I: Identification Neutrality Acts: policies passed by congress in hope that the United States would avoid conflicts over freedom if the seas; banned travel on belligerents’ ships and the sale of arms to countries at war Lusitania: The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans Palmer Raids: A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities Agricultural Adjustment Act: Protected farmers from price drops by providing crop subsidies to reduce production, educational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion Civilian Conservation Act: Sent young men to work camps to preform reforestation and conservation tasks. Removed surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, provided money for families National Origin Act: It restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. (set up ratios) of that national origin in 1890, which severely restricted immigration Zimmerman Telegram: Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile SaccoVanzetti Case: prejudiced jury sentenced them to death, caused riots around the world, new trial denied Bonus Expeditionary Force: veterans who converged on the capital, demanding the immediate payment of their entire bonus that was promised to them after the war for later years Andrew Mellon: "Wealthy industrialist and conservative secretary of the treasury in the 1920s." Secretary of the Treasury under Harding. American Protective League: private organization that worked with federal law enforcement agencies in support of the antiGerman Empire movement, as well as against radical anarchists, antiwar activists, and leftwing labor and political organizations Revenue Act of 1926: Act which gave tax breaks to the wealthy in an attempt to encourage the "trickledown effect." Income/Productivity Gap: income difference between rich and poor Social Security Act: created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers Huey P. Long: The Louisiana senator whose "Share Our Wealth" programs and promises of $5,000 to all poor families ended with his assassination in 1935 Wagner Act: guaranteed the right of unions to organize and to collectively bargain with management. Herbert Hoover: Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. UBoat: German submarines, named for the German Unterseeboot, or "undersea boat," proved deadly for Allied ships in the war zone. Uboat attacks played an important role in drawing the United States into the war. Espionage and Sedition Act: imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection. Warren G. Harding: 29 president, Republican from Ohio. promised return to normality after WW1 used efforts of make no enemies during his presidency. scandals affected his presidency such as the Ohio Gang that had to do with financial jobs that he offered his friends. Committee on Public Information: Headed by George Creel, purpose was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI Part II: Essay Questions Essay 1 I. The Great Depression was a life altering event, that left many unscathed from its devastation. Americans had to change the wat they lived and their lives as they knew them were drastically changed. Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt were left with an incredible challenge and both tried in different ways to fix the problems caused by the Great Depression. Both presidents had successes and failures during their presidencies but they both made an impact on dealing with the Great Depression. Impact on American Life o Demoralization of the family unit o Lack of trust in government o No food in Detroit, 4,000 children stood in bread lines each day seeking food o Many Americans reacted to the depression with resignation or blamed themselves for economic misfortune President Hoover’s solution o Seemed inadequate and uncaring not publically sympathetic o Main goal was to restore confidence in the economy and the banking system o Authorized loans to farmers and businessmen to prevent them from going bankrupt o Advocated “rugged individualism” man must fend for himself o Government assistance to the poor should be temporary and be provided by local and state gov. o Slowed the Emergency Relief and Reconstruction Act President Roosevelt’s solution o The New Deal Social welfare become a gov. priority Focused on relief (provided jobs and food aid), recovery (preserved the major industry and economic sectors), and reform (change the laws and regulate the economy) Success or Failure o Both used the federal gov. more o Hoover’s approach wasn’t nearly aggressive as Roosevelt’s o Roosevelt was more successful due to his aggressiveness and all the aspects he covered in his plan Essay 2 I. Four years after the Great Depression turned America upside down and altered Americans life, the Election of 1932 came along became a critical election. After the devastation of the Great Depression had fully set in, the election of 1932 became a huge turning point in American history. America presidents had always been a Republican but the 1932 election brought in a Democrat and many changes. Turning Point o Ended Republican dominance FDR o The campaign unfolded during the darkest days of the great depression Hoover was seen as the bad guy o Tried to project a public image of health and vigor o Attacked Hoover over the nations deficits o Won by a landslide Hoover o Was blamed for the Stock Market crash o Didn’t have a solution while FDR promised one o Seemed unsympathetic of the people Essay 3 I. The United States had strong democratic values before they entered WWI, but as they joined the war effort the stress caused things to change drastically. America joining the war caused the unleashing of harmful antidemocratic forces during the war and even after the war ended. This wave of anti democratic views threatened civil liberties at home during the war. Essay 4 I. After WWI, America wanted to avoid another world war at all costs which helped to shape the foreign policy at the time. During the 1930s America foreign policy was based on Isolationism which seemed like a good idea but in the end it left America unprepared for the war that was happening overseas. Isolationism was the complete opposite of president Woodrow Wilson’s approach during the war period of 19141917. a) Statement Agreement o The statement is accurate because the new foreign policy did leave America unprepared for WWII. America shut themselves off from the rest of the world during the period of Isolationism. b) Woodrow Wilson’s Approach o Wilson wanted the U.S. to exemplify democratic peace o American farms and factories fed and armed both sides in Europe o Felt it was America’s duty to protect democracy and freedom in other countries c) 1930s Foreign Policy o Isolationism Nations’ best interest was best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance o Restricted trading laws d) Foreign Policy Reaction to WWI o Americans did not want to into WWI so they were avoiding having to join another war Essay 5 I. The Progressive and New Deal Eras each produced a record amount of programs and policies that worked to change the status of Americans living in poverty, which included their working environments, however while the policies of each were similar in some ways such as fair labor practices, they also varied in their focus with Progressives working towards the protection of women and children in poverty, and New Dealers working towards pulling families out of poverty by providing men with jobs. a) Progressive Era Issues o Urban living conditions o Horrendous working conditions b) Progressive Era Reforms o Living Conditions Settlement houses like Janes Addams and Hull House Urban Refuges: used to improve the lives of industrial workers, Coney Island and Central Park o Working Conditions KeatingOwen Act 1916: child labor act that prohibited the sale of interstate commerce of goods produced by children under fourteen Workmen’s compensation Act National Consumers League: opposed harsh, unregulated working conditions of industrial positions c) New Deal Era Issues o Unemployment and poverty due to the Great Depression d) New Deal Era Reforms o Living Conditions HOLC: pays off mortgages of nonfarm homes FERA: $3 billion given to the states for direct dole programs AAA: gave millions to pay farmer’s mortgages o Working Conditions PWA: money for parkways, buildings, highways and etc. CWA: provided temporary jobs during hard seasons WPA: gave jobs to high school and college students as actors, writers, and musicians Wagner Act: create National Labor Relations Board which allows the right to organized labor, forms unions NRA: reduced hours a person could work, provided everybody fair levels of minimum wage CCC: provided employment to young men by giving them jobs in government camps where they would have to send a % of their paycheck back home each month e) Comparison o National Consumers League vs. NRA vs. Labor Unions Label products identifying league NRA compliance in effort to promote consumer knowledge and fair labor conditions o CCC vs. Settlement Houses Both educated poor/immigrants provided job education o Progressives vs. New Deal and the poor Progressives focused on exploitation of women and children New deal focused on providing job opportunities almost solely to men