(Ill) The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240-V lineis 17.5 A. At what rate must cooling water pass over the coilsif the water temperature is to rise by no more than 6.50 C?
4/20/16 troit What did we learn……that is was a place that was once beautiful but now if completely destroyed. Suburbs • They all look the same • They are boring • Housewives would get drunk all day because suburbs were so boring, they had nothing else to do • Historically Americans had ill feels about cities reinforced by concentration of immigrants • Political interest realized that they could have control of suburb jurisdiction (tax and spending policies) • Racial segregation is an effective marketing strategy • In 1934 congress created FHA to ensure home loans by banks • In 1944 Veterans Administration makes loans to returning GIs. People are able to buy homes with little or no savings • The FHA and VA encourage contraction almost exclusively outside of the city • The use of suburbs allow developers to maximize profits and its easier than rehabbing existing neighborhoods • Along with a home, people were sold a “way of life”, i.e. status, charter, escape problems of the city • Developers were initially careful to only sell to people who added to profits, the affluent • First community builder Jesse Clyde Nichols wanted to challenge the grandeur of Europe, his property is targeted to upper middle class and wealthy (1910ish) • William Levitt (194050s) use mass building techniques, by 1950 they're building a house every 16 minutes, much like Henry Ford, Levitt ’s assembly line approach reduces costs by using prefab materials, and repetition by the workers, typical house is $6000 • With federal guarantees, an ex GI could buy a home for $56/month • Levitt had tight control — no fences, grass must remain cut, not clothes on a clothes line • No selling to or use by blacks …only for members of the Caucasian race, except for domestic servants • Nichols and Levitt show how developers have power to shave suburbs to their attitudes and tastes • Blacks were the most typically named restricted group, then Jews or people with tuberculosis • Government agencies, and interest groups reinforced racial segregation • The Supreme Court declared restrictive convents unenforceable in 1948, but developers and homeowner associations simply did not show the property to blacks • 1968 Hosing Act finally barred racial discrimination in sale and housing rental • However housing patterns were established by this point • Outside of cities, small developments began contracting services, like water, from the city, and the enclaves being to incorporate (usually thought some interests) • Suburbs protect business from taxes and regulations • State legislatures begin to make it easier for groups to create new towns and cities and incorporation is not just a privilege but a right • Zoning also is a tool to control land use, citizens can now control how certain types of land is … or is not used • Some lawsuits have challenged zoning under the 14th amendment and cities had to be careful to not discriminate against minorities • Today all race and ethnic groups have moved to the suburbs