Three balanced coins are tossed independently. One of the variables of interest is Y1, the number of heads. Let Y2 denote the amount of money won on a side bet in the following manner. If the first head occurs on the first toss, you win $1. If the first head occurs on toss 2 or on toss 3 you win $2 or $3, respectively. If no heads appear, you lose $1 (that is, win −$1).
a Find the joint probability function for Y1 and Y2.
b What is the probability that fewer than three heads will occur and you will win $1 or less? [That is, find F(2, 1).]
Discussion: Orientalism Imaginative geographies o Perception through images, texts, discourses. o Why are they important Help us reflect peoples impression on places Make sense and shape the world National imagery constantly changes Imaginations of national identity works both from within and by contrast with others. Arab-Israeli War of 1973- media said Arabs couldn’t fight, were weak, etc. Difference between US and European Orientalism: o American- indirect, recognized Israel as civilized, became politicized. o Europe- directly involved, US never occupied anywhere in Western Asia Big Questions: MENA, hydropolitics Transboundary rivers: Crosses borders between countries Hydropolitics: Interplay of fresh water resource issues and politics o Especially international geopolitics o Also domestic politics WI is awash in water, pre candidate Bill Richardson Crucial in Middle East because of climate (hot, low rainfall) Transboundary Rivers in MENA: Euphrates-Tigris System Hydroplitics in the Euphrates-Tigris River Basin: 1980s: Turkey plans: Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) o Purpose: sustainable economic development in less developed part of Turkey. o Plan: 22 dams 19 hydropower plants Irrigation network for 1.7 million ha of land (1 ha ~ 2.4 acres) o Problems: Population displacement (especially Kurds) Planned during years of good rainfall No guarantees of minimum flows to Syria and Iraq Israel and Palestine: Balfour declaration (1917, UK) o “Establishment of Palestine as a home for the Jewish people” UN partition plan (1948) o Territory divided into 2 states: Israel and Palestine Israeli ‘security fence’ or ‘apartheid wall’ Hydropolitics in Israel-Palestine: Freshwater sources: o Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) o Mountain aquifer o Coastal aquifer (Gaza) o Rivers Jordan, Yarmuk Hydropolitics in MENA due to: Aridity o Water as scarce resource Historical conflicts Europe: Introduction Hydropolitics: Interplay of freshwater resource issues and politics Big Questions: What do geopolitical and economic change in Europe mean for environmental issues (especially water) o How did the cold war affect ecosystems in eastern Europe, compared to western Europe European Union: a supernational entity Economic integration – common: o Trade policies o Policies to combat unemployment o Environmental and energy policies o Agricultural policy Political integration: common – o Foreign policy o Immigration policy Regional integration o Governance through European Parliament Council of Europe, and European Commission Copenhagen Criteria: Institutions guaranteeing democracy and human rights A functioning market economy Acceptance and ability to implement obligations of EU membership The ‘Eurozone’: Euro is the currency Oversight by European central bank Common monetary policy ‘Schengenland:’ Countries in the Schengen Agreement Travel from one country to another within the Schengen Agreement = don’t need a visa. When and how was the EU formed Geography of the industrial revolution in Europe. Post-WWII reconstruction The Cold War Resource conflict and geopolitical conflict in Europe: Saar-Lorraine in France-Germany o Coal in German Saarland o Iron ore in French Lorraine o Annexation attempts before WWII WWII left Europe devastated Rebuilding Postwar Europe: European Coal and Steel Community, 1952 Success of ECSC inspired EEC (common market), which led to EU formation in stages USSR: postwar reconstruction: USSR occupied Eastern Europe: o Demanded reparations from Axis countries in east. Industrialization, Soviet-style o Command economy o Nationalization of industry USSR: postwar repression: Nationalist uprisings met with force: o 1953- Berlin o 1956- Hungary and Poland Iron Curtain: divided Soviet Union from rest of Europe. Why environmental degradation in eastern Europe: USSR commands economy Blue Danube Europe’s (world’s) longest river Europe- Nationalism, etc Cultural Nationalism: Defending a set of cultural practices against perceived ‘foreign’ cultural expressions. Defining those cultural practices (including cultural landscape) as essential to national identity, deserving protection from the state. Cultural pride isn’t cultural nationalism Cultural Landscapes: Switzerland bans minarets (2009) Why o Minarets ‘weren’t Swiss’ and ‘don’t belong in the Swiss landscape’ o Islamophobia Nationalism and cultural landscapes: Imprint of long history on landscapes: o Medieval o Renaissance-baroque o Industrial Historic preservation, historic re-creation o Paris skyline o Nürnburg streetscape Religious landscapes o For many Europeans, churches are considered historical architectural artefacts, not religious icons Politics and religion in Europe: Different Secularisms: France o Opposed French catholic church (French revolution) o No Islamic head coverings o 1905: separation of church and state Germany o Separation of church and state, but taxes used to help churches Europe: Changes in Religious Participation Decline in religious participation in most western European countries o Protestant, roman catholic Resurgence of religious participation: o Poland, Romania (post- Soviet control) o Greece Policies for population growth: Cash incentives for childbirth: o Austria, Germany Allowances for young children o France Immigration Immigration in Europe: Legacies of WWII: Turkish, Greek, Italian immigrants brought in as guest workers to Germany in 1960s. Immigration in Europe: Cold War Legacies Migration of Eastern Europeans to West Concerns in Western Europe about impacts on population, economy Immigration and the EU: Most Europeans support limitations on immigration Common EU immigration policy: Schengen Agreement o Freer travel for EU citizens Immigrant communities in Europe: Social tension caused by immigration and ‘ghettoization’ of migrants: o Immigrant populations isolated, segregated (in suburbs) o Higher rates of poverty, state violence The EU: making European Culture EU facilitates commonality: o Mobility Easy to move, attend school Employment anywhere in EU o Multilingualism Accused of not being democratic enough in its structure o Only the EU parliament is elected; the EU Commission and Council of the EU are appointed o Minority rights Europe: integration Fragmentation Cultural nationalisms may be response to: o Cultural imperialism (globalization) o Cultural minorities (religious, racial, economic) o European integration (EU): Feared loss of national culture Discussion- Regional Economic Integration: EU is an economic union Danube: Plan is to straighten it, deepen it, make the river fit the boats that would go through it. Midterm #2: Turkey, EU, Blue Danube – will be on exam Review study guide (on D2L) *Know locations of European countries