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(II) Given that the Fermi energy of aluminum is 11.63

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus) ISBN: 9780133942651 188

Solution for problem 34 Chapter 73

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780133942651 | Authors: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 34

(II) Given that the Fermi energy of aluminum is 11.63 eV,(a) calculate the density of free electrons using Eq. 40-12,and (b ) estimate the valence of aluminum using this modeland the known density (2.70 X 103 kg/m3) and atomicmass (27.0) of aluminum.

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Chapter 20 What is the difference between narrow­ and broad­spectrum antibiotics When are each prescribed and what are the consequences of each Narrow spectrum antibiotics Consequences ­ only kills microbe causing infection When ­ If you know the microbe causing infection ­ patient is not seriously sick Broad spectrum antibiotics Consequences ­ you can kill many microbes at once ­ affect normal microbes of the patient When ­ If the patient is gravely ill ­ cause of infection is not known What are the five major ways that an antibiotic acts on a bacterial cell Identify modes of action of the following antimicrobial drugs; a. inhibition of cell wall synthesis ­Beta­lactams (natural penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins) b. inhibition of protein synthesis (these drugs target the prokaryotic ribosomes and eukaryotic mitochondrial ribosome specifically) ­streptomycin ­tetracycline ­chloramphenicol c. inhibition of metabolic pathways ­sulfonamides affect synthesis of folic acid (a precursor for DNA/RNA by competitive inhibition) d. inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis ­Quinolones (like cipro) Describe characteristics you should consider when selecting an antibiotic to treat a disease: a. efficacy (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC/Minimum Bactericidal Concentration MBC) b. route of administration c. safety – toxicity (therapeutic index), allergies, disruption of normal microbiota, side effects d. Cost e. chemical stability What is the difference between bactericidal/bacteriostatic How are the MIC and MBC determined experimentally Bactericidal: kills all microbes Bacteriostatic: inhibits the growth of microbes How do bacteria resist antimicrobial drugs ­Beta­lactamase ­entry of the drug ­efflux pumps ­synergism How do we prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria Chapter 14 Define pathology, etiology, infection, and disease. ● Pathology­ concerned with interactions between host and pathogen ● Infection­ the ability of an agent to enter, survive and multiply in the host. ● Disease­ occurs when the infectious agent actually causes symptoms, and the body is no longer able to function normally ● Etiology­ what causes the disease Compare commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. ● Commensalism: one organism benefits and the other is unaffected. ● Mutualism: both organisms benefit ● Parasitism: one organism benefits at the expense of the other List Koch’s postulates. Explain some exceptions to Koch’s postulates. ● The bacterium must be present in every case of the disease ● The bacterium must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture ● The specific disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the bacterium is inoculated into a healthy susceptible host ● The bacterium must be recoverable from the experimentally infected host. Exceptions ● Some pathogens can’t be cultured ● Some diseases can involve any number of several pathogens ● Some pathogens can cause several diseases ● Ethically, you can’t re­inoculate a human to prove a microbe causes a disease ● Some humans have microbes but no disease Describe the importance of normal microbiota and microbial antagonism. How do normal microbiota become opportunistic pathogens Normal microbiota protect the host via microbial antagonism ● Microbial antagonism­ where microbes compete with one another for an ecological niche ● Opportunistic pathogens­ normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances. 1. Immune suppression 2. Changes in normal microbiota 3. Introduction to new site Put the following in proper sequence according to the normal pattern of disease progression: period of decline, period of convalescence, period of illness, prodromal period, incubation period. 1. Incubation period 2. Prodromal period 3. Period of illness 4. Period of decline 5. Period of convalescence Define...

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Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics
Edition: 4
Author: Randall D. Knight (Professor Emeritus)
ISBN: 9780133942651

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(II) Given that the Fermi energy of aluminum is 11.63