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sinx 4 sinx 4 cos

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9781439048474 | Authors: Ron Larson ISBN: 9781439048474 185

Solution for problem 108 Chapter 7

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN:  9781439048474 | Authors: Ron Larson

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Problem 108

sinx 4 sinx 4 cos

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Hershey Notes Chapter 12 Financing Campaigns  How much money is spent on campaigns o In 2012, for all levels of office in the U.S. cost over $7 billion o Presidential Campaigns  2012 was the most expensive  Campaign spending has gone up for many reasons  More skilled at recruiting from small and big donors  Polarization  Unlimited funds from nonparty groups  4 ways presidential races use money  Coordinated spending o Money spent by party organizations in coordination with a candidate’s campaign to purchase services such as media advertising or polling for the campaign  Independent spending o Can spend as much as they choose independently to expressly support or oppose a candidate, as long as they do so without consulting their candidate  Hybrid ads o Mention both the candidate and a generic party message  Mobilize voters through grassroots efforts o Congressional Campaigns  Incumbents greatly outdo their challengers in fund­raising and spending in every election year  Republican candidates usually hold a fund­raising edge over Democrats in congressional campaigns o State and Local Campaigns  Much less is known about spending practices in the thousands of campaigns for state and local offices, mainly because there is no central reporting agency comparable to the national Federal Election Commission (FEC).  Local candidates can spend a few hundred dollars and win  Some spend millions  Governor campaigns often cost at least as much as races for the U.S. Senate o What is the impact of campaign spending  Reach voters with messages  Buying early visibility  The more challengers can spend when they run against incumbents, the better are their chances for victory  Incumbents spend when they have a strong challenge  How does money flow into campaigns o 2 different ways  First, individuals and groups can give money to a candidates campaigns  the campaign then decides how to spend the money it receives  Secondly, groups and individuals can spend money on campaign communications and activities, usually independent of the campaign  it is the individuals or groups, not the campaign, which choose how to spend the money o Individuals, party organizations, and PACs (other than super PACs) can use both methods to put money into campaigns o Other nonparty groups – Super PACs, 501(c)s, and 527s – can spend their money only on campaign communications; they are not allowed to give money directly to candidates o Giving money to Candidates Campaigns  5 sources  Individual o Most money contributed from individuals o Federal Elections Campaign Act (FECA)  Limited an individual’s donation to any federal candidate to $1,000  Political action committees (PACs) o Political groups, other than party organizations, whose purpose is to raise and spend money to influence elections o Most PACs have been created by corporations, labor unions, or trade associations o Corporations and unions are currently allowed to give money directly to federal candidates only through a traditional PAC o Nonconnected PAC  Ideological groups  No sponsoring organizations o Super PACs  PACs that can collect unlimited amounts of donations as a consequence of a recent Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. FEC  Are required to disclose their donors  o Leadership PACs  Those set up by incumbents to distribute money to other incumbents or challengers in their party o Most PAC money is intended to gain access for the giver  The assurance that the legislators door will be open when the group hopes to plead its case on legislation o Most PAC contributions go to incumbents  Political parties (including the party in government) o Parties are allowed to make small donations directly to the House (up to $5000) and the Senate ($45,500)  The candidates own resources  Public (taxpayers’) funds  Reform of the Campaign Finance Rules o Contribution Limits  Hard (or federal) money  Funds raised and psent in accordance with the FECA’s rules o Public Disclosure  FECA required that congressional and presidential candidates publicly disclose their spending and the names, addresses, and occupations of all contributors o Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns o Spending Limits  Candidates for president who accept public funding must also accept spending limits  The Loopholes that Ate the Reforms o Independent Spending  Ads that are run independent of a candidates campaign o Soft Money  Unlimited fund­raising and amounts of money that can be spent on party building and voter mobilization activities o Issue Advocacy Ads  Any political advertising that did not include the terms “elect,” “vote for,” “support,” “oppose,” or similar terms  As long as these political ads did not say these words, then courts held that the ad was not a campaign ad because it did not expressly advocate electing a candidate o 1970 Reforms accomplishments  Intended and unintended effects  Slowed the growth of campaign spending  Made small donors more valuable to candidates  Opened much of the campaign finance process to public scrutiny  Failed to reduce the influence of “interested money”  Effects on the parties  Public funding went directly to the candidates themselves, not to the parties o Created more distance between the party organization and the presidential campaign o The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)  Banned soft­money contributions to national parties  State and local parties can still accept money from individuals, corporations, and labor unions  Electioneering communication  A broadcast, cable, or satellite communication that mentioned a candidate within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary, and prohibited such expenditures by corporations and unions o 527s and 501(c)s  527  The provision #527 of the U.S. tax code, allowing certain tax­ exempt groups to accept unlimited contributions and spend without limit on election advocacy, as long as they do not expressly call for the election or defeat of specific candidates and do not coordinate their activated with federal candidates or parties  501(c)s  as long as federal campaign activity is not their “major purpose,” they do not have to disclose the names of their donors publicly o Bundling  An individual or group can solicit large numbers of these individual donors, combine (“bundle”) their contributions, deliver them to a campaign, and take credit for much more substantial contribution  Citizens United o Will Super PACs replace the parties  Super PACs can fund their independent spending by accepting unlimited contributions from corporations, unions, and individuals  Parties can’t because of the BCRA

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Chapter 7, Problem 108 is Solved
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Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 8
Author: Ron Larson
ISBN: 9781439048474

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sinx 4 sinx 4 cos