If Y1, Y2, . . . , Yn denote a random sample from an exponential distribution with mean β, show that f (y | β) is in the exponential family and that Y is sufficient for β.
s UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA ASSESSING THE GUIDANCE SERVICES AT WESLEY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, KUMASI OSEI KUFFOUR JANUARY, 2015 ASSESSING THE GUIDANCE SERVICES AT WESLEY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, KUMASI OSEI KUFFOUR 4129170083 A LONG ESSAY SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF EDUCATION DEGREE IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING JANUARY 2015 DECLARATION CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION I hereby declare that this project work is the result of my own original research and that the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references and that no part of it has been presented for another degree in the University or elsewhere. Candidate’s Name: OSEI KUFFOUR Signature: ……………………………. Date: …………………………………. SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of the project work was supervised in accordance with the guidelines on project work laid down by the University of Education, Winneba. Supervisor’s Name: REV. ELDAD BONNEY Signature: ……………………………. Date: …………………………………. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A long essay of this nature could not have been accomplished without certain amount of guidance and support from others. It is in this direction that I wish to express my heartfelt appreciation to my supervisor, Very Reverend Eldad Bonney of the Counselling Centre, University of Education, Winneba for his constructive criticisms, suggestions and support which helped to make this work a success. ii DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my wife, Rita Serwaa iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii DEDICATION iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 7 Purpose of the Study 7 Research Questions 7 Significance of the Study 8 Delimitation 8 Limitations 9 Definition of Terms 9 Organization of the rest of the Study 10 TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 12 Introduction 12 Theoretical Review 15 The Concept of Guidance 15 The Services of Guidance 17 Orientation or Adaptive Service 17 iv Appraisal or Data Collection Service 18 Information or Distributive Service 19 Placement Service 19 Consultation Service 20 Follow-up Service 21 Evaluation Service 21 Counselling Service 22 The Role/Responsibilities of the College Counsellor 23 Counselling Adolescents 25 Characteristics of Adolescent 26 Counselling Needs of Adolescents 28 Counselling Adults 31 Categories of Counselling for Adults 33 Characteristics of Effective Guidance Programme 36 Empirical Review 37 The Need for Guidance and Counselling in Training Colleges 37 Absence of the Guidance and Counselling Programmes in Schools 38 Problems of the Adolescent Students 41 Summary of Literature Review 42 v THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44 Research Design 44 Population and Sample 45 Sample Procedure 46 Research Instruments 47 Data Collection Procedure 47 Method of Data Analysis 48 FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 49 Biographical Data 49 Research Question One 51 Research Question Two 54 Research Question Three 55 Research Question Four 58 FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 60 Summary 60 Conclusions 61 Recommendations 62 Suggestions for Further Research 63 REFERENCES 65 APPENDICES 69 A Questionnaire for Students 70 B Questionnaire for Counsellors 74 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Distribution of Students Chosen by Programmes 46 2 Major Problems Guidance and Counselling Faced 50 3 How Students Patronized the Guidance Programme 53 4 Facilities for the Counsellor 55 5 Services Offered by the Present Guidance Programme 57 vii ABSTRACT This study was a descriptive survey designed to assess the guidance programme being offered in Wesley College of Education and suggest ways of improving it. The specific guidance services under study were Information and Counselling Services. The views of 200 students and the college counsellor were gathered by means of a self-designed questionnaire consisting of thirty Likert- type items. The data was then subjected to frequency and percentage analysis to answer the research questions formulated to guide the study. The results of the analysis indicated that the problems faced by the students of the college included financial, family problems, relating with colleagues and lack of counselling. The guidance programme also faced such problems as some students not knowing the counsellor; students not being informed about the services available in the college; the counsellor not keeping some discussions with students confidential; no counselling room; no fixed counselling schedule; the counsellor not working with other tutors and lack of administrative support. Based on the findings it was recommended that the college counsellor studied the needs of students so as to plan and implement relevant guidance programmes in the college. He could form guidance and counselling committee to help him in his work and also update his knowledge and skills and put up good attitude in order to attract students for help. Administrative support could also help to make the counsellor’s work more effective. viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Human existence is beset with many problems. This is because while there is no end to human needs to be met and aspirations to be achieved, the means of achieving these needs and aspirations appear very limited. Apart from the limitedness of means of achieving life’s objectives there are many negative intervening variables which usually stand in the way of achieving life’s desires. The limitedness of means of achieving the desires coupled with the blocking and negating effects of certain intervening variables create plenty of problems for humans. These problems are of various types and grades. Some are concerned with personality matters; some with vocational issues concerned with which job to choose; how to adopt in a work situation and prosper within a given vocational setting; some others are concerned with educational matters associated with learning, study habits, concentration and passing school examinations. Yet, there are others concerned with marital, moral, economic, social and political issues. Some of these problems are very much within personal solution range. However, there are others which are beyond lone-self solution range. After experiencing some sleepless nights and developing some loss of appetite over a problem one cannot find ready solution, he/she finds himself or herself 1 Consciously or unconsciously soliciting for some external help for an effective solution to that problem. Those who have little confidence in themselves or in others as regards their ability to solve these problems satisfactorily may resort to supernatural powers. Psychologists and victims of serious problems do know that unresolved problems may push the victim to a situation which may be regarded as psychological trauma usually symptomized by worries, anxieties, depression and tense feelings. These unresolved serious problems may push the victim into a sort of psychological sickness. The psychologically sick person may not adjust well in a given situation – school, industrial and social milieu. Such a situation paves the way for unhealthy interpersonal relationships, reduced productivity in whatever business one is engaged in. As Ghana is making giant strides towards economic development and expansion coupled with rapid population growth, the citizens are sure to face many serious problems from almost all aspects of human life. Most of these cannot be solved by the citizens themselves. They need some external help. This is true of adults as well as adolescents. It is also true of all fields of human endeavour including the school setting. To solve their problems effectively, they need the services of the members of the helping profession; to be precise, the services of qualified professional guidance counsellors. It is only human that when a person cannot solve his problems by himself, the most immediate reaction would be to consult someone else he thinks can offer the desired solution. Sometimes he may be lucky to come across that person who 2 actually helps him in solving the problems. At other times he may run into a charlatan or a quack that complicates issues and compounds the problem. There is therefore, much need for establishing official guidance and counselling units for offering psychologically sound services much needed for various problem solutions. Such services unit will make the individual citizens not only grapple with their problems satisfactorily and effectively but also get well-adjusted and adapted to their social milieu so as to perform their normal duties with vim for the overall good of themselves and the nation. According to Assoah (2007) in the United States of America, George Merrill in 1895, started an experimental career guidance programme at the California School of Mechanical Arts for students. Between 1898 and 1907, Jesse B. Davis implemented systematic guidance programmes in public schools in Michigan. Guidance services were introduced in schools later in some other states. Parsons in 1908 established a Vocational Bureau to guide young people seeking jobs and to train teachers to serve as career or vocational counsellors. In the 1920s, John Dewey emphasized the school’s role in guiding students in their personal, social and moral development. Consequently, schools incorporated guidance activities into the curriculum for the purpose of developing skills for living. Williamson also developed the first theory of Guidance and Counselling, known as the Trait and Factor Theory, and was applied in schools (Assoah, 2007). In 1946, academic programmes in Guidance and counselling were introduced in the universities. In the same year, the United States parliament passed the George-Barden Act. This legislation provided funds to develop and support 3 Guidance and counselling activities in schools and other settings. The United States parliament also passed the National Defense Education Act of 1958. This Act provided funds to help the states establish and maintain school counselling, testing and other guidance related services in secondary schools. It also authorized the establishment of counselling institutes and training programmes in colleges and universities to improve the skills of those who are working with students in secondary schools or of persons who were training to become school counsellors. In the 1950s, new theories of counselling were introduced and used for counselling students and other categories of people. Examples are the Person- Centered Theory, Rational Emotive Theory, Reality Theory and Adlerian counselling (Assoah, 2007). In Ghana, the Ministry of Labour, Social Welfare and Education established a Youth Employment Department to offer career guidance to middle school leavers in 1955. The Curriculum Research Development Unit (C.R.D.U.) was instituted to cater for programmes in Social Welfare Services, Education for the Handicapped and Guidance and Counselling. The C.R.D.U. made the first attempt to introduce cumulative record cards in first cycle institutions (Assoah, 2007). According to Taylor and Baku (2006) Dankwa is said to be the father of guidance and counselling in Ghana. He agitated for the establishment of guidance and counselling in secondary schools and also gave public lectures on the need to introduce guidance and counselling services in schools. In 1979, through a policy statement, the Ghana Education Service established guidance and counselling 4 Programme in second cycle institutions (secondary, secondary/ technical/ commercial, vocational schools and training colleges). In 1976, the Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (I.E.P.A.) of the University of Education, Winneba organized eight-week intensive in-service training for selected teachers in guidance and counselling to enable them function as guidance co-coordinators (Pecku, 1991). The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a p e C o a s t i n c l u d e d c o u r s e s i n G u i d a n c e a n d Counselling in its undergraduate and post-graduate in education programmes in 1971. It was in this year that the University of Ghana established a counselling centre for students. In 1976, the University of Education, Winneba introduced a Master’s programme in Guidance and Counselling. The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology also established a counselling centre for her students in 1993. In 1997, the University of Education, Winneba set up a counselling centre for her students and staff. This university later introduced sandwich Masters in Guidance and Counselling in the year 2006. The University of Education, Winneba also mounted undergraduate and Master’s programmes in Guidance and Counselling between the 1990 and 2004. With the introduction of guidance and counselling courses at University of Education to complement the effort of the University of Education, Winneba in training guidance counsellors it is evident that Guidance and Counselling has come to stay in Ghana (Taylor & Buku, 2006). In Wesley College, the chaplain who also teaches is the guidance co- ordinator of the college. However, the students face several problems for which reason guidance and counselling is needed but partially provided. The counselor has no office and therefore keeps no records. There is no confidentiality as counselling sessions are held either under trees, the Assembly Hall or in the counsellor’s home. Most of the students (at all levels) 5 are not aware of the existence of a guidance co-ordinator as he is not introduced to them during the first year orientation period. The guidance co-ordinator is a member of the disciplinary committee. Most students therefore fear to go for counselling especially if their problems have to do with school rules and regulations as he/she may be sent to the disciplinary committee to be punished. Some of the training college students are adults but most of them are adolescents. Most often, adolescence has been stereotyped as abnormal or deviant. Young people of every generation have seemed radical, unnerving and different from adults. Adolescents may try on new identities and enjoying moderate amounts of outrageous behaviour with hostilities toward parents, school and the society. The problems of Wesley College Students are so many. They range from financial and academic to social, especially, opposite sex relationship and alcoholism. The adult students usually have families and therefore have financial responsibilities toward them. They may also be affected by academic and other family (social) problems to deal with while in school. In the college, students seek their own solutions (which may be inappropriate) to problems because of the problems with the guidance and counselling programme in the school. The problems include the counsellor being a chaplain and not a professional counsellor, lack of office and materials to work with. 6 Statement of the Problem Wesley College will soon attain tertiary status. Although there is a co- ordinator in the college, the writer thinks that the guidance and counselling services in the college is not the best. They could be better off than they are today. Secondly, no local research has been done to examine empirically the kinds of problems learners face and measures that could be employed to solve them. There is therefore the need to investigate into the guidance problems of the college. Purpose of the Study This study seeks to: 1. Identify the problems of the guidance and counselling programme in Wesley College. Students as well as the counsellor have several problems as far as guidance and counselling in the college is concerned. These are the problems that the work will seek to find out. 2. Investigate the causes of the problems. 3. Recommend the measures for improving upon the Guidance and counselling services in the college. Research Questions The study will be directed by the following questions: 1. What major problems are faced by the students 2. What major problems do Guidance and Counselling face in the college 3. To what extent do students patronize the guidance programme of the college 7 4. What facilities are there for the counsellor to work with 5. What services are offered by the present guidance programme Significance of the Study The study will be beneficial to the college as it will help to bring out the problems of the college as far as students and the guidance programme are concerned. It will give enough reason to improve the guidance programme in the college. The college will soon turn fully tertiary and the college counsellor’s work will be made easier as most of the problems that make him inefficient will be known. The students will also have a good guidance programme since there will be recommendations to help solve their problems. They will now be happy to go for counselling knowing that their problems will be solved. Delimitation The focus of this study is on Wesley College. It looks at the guidance programme that already exists as to the problems of the programme and what can be done to improve it. The people that will be used for the research are the counselor and the students of Wesley College in Kumasi. The study concentrates on only two guidance services (counselling and information services). 8 Limitations The following are the problems that are likely to affect the results of the research: 1. There may be some of the students within the sample who either did not know the college counsellor at all or had not interacted with him. However, since they had been chosen to respond to the questionnaire, may provide any information that comes to mind. 2. The college counsellor probably did not provide information that reflects his personal shortcomings and that of his work. 3. Another expert apart from the supervisor could have helped to improve upon the items in the instrument. 4. Since Wesley College of Education is only one of the thirty-eight colleges of education (training teachers) in Ghana and the situation in other colleges may be different, it may not be appropriate to generalize the results of the research for all the colleges of education. Definition of Terms The following definitions are provided to facilitate an understanding of the terms used throughout the study. GUIDANCE: The help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustment and in solving problems. COUNSELLING: A process by which a troubled person is helped to feel and behave in a more personally satisfying manner through interaction with an uninvolved person (the counsellor). It is a number of procedures used in assisting individuals to maximize his/her overall personal development so that he/she could be more effective, satisfied and more useful to the society in which he/she lives. COLLEGE COUNSELLOR: A person 9 appointed by the college to attend to the guidance and counselling needs of the students. LATE ADOLESCENT: One whose age lies between 18 and 23 years. EARLY/YOUNG ADULT: One whose age lies between 23 and 35 years. Organization of the Rest of the Study The second chapter of this study is the Literature Review. The review is organized under three main headings namely, introduction, theoretical framework and empirical review. The introductory aspect talks about the background of the study. The theoretical framework gives the conceptual framework of the issue (guidance services) under study and its related areas. The empirical review also presents the major findings of other researchers. It proceeds from broad to focus. The chapter ends with a summary. Before the Review of Related Literature, chapter one (Introduction) had dealt with areas such as the background of the study, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, delimitation, limitations, definition of terms and organization of the rest of the study. The next chapter is entitled ‘Methodology’. It covers sub-headings such as research design, population, sample and sampling procedure, research instrument, data collection procedure and data analysis plan. The research design was descriptive and the strategy was a simple survey. The accessible population was Wesley College of Education. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain a sample of 200 students. A Likert type was designed and used to collect data for the research. Students were grouped according to their programmes before the lottery method was used to select the sample proportionally. For the method of analysis, the four-scale questionnaire was collapsed into two namely, ‘True’ and 10 ‘Not True’. The frequencies and their corresponding percentages were discussed to answer the research questions. Chapter four (Results and Discussions) presents the results with their discussions using the research questions. The discussions included the interpretation of the findings with reference to previous findings. Implications were drawn from the findings as well. The last chapter comprises the Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations. The summary gives the overview of the research problem and methodology. A summary of the findings are also presented here. The conclusions were based on the results of the study. Recommendations are also based on the findings. Suggestions for further research were also added. 11 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Guidance and counselling is not foreign in the Ghanaian society. The traditional society provided certain services which could be termed guidance. However, with the introduction of Western Education, guidance has been practiced by teachers, administrators and chaplains. Such assistance it seems was offered in times of crisis, therefore making it crisis oriented. This type of assistance was not organized. It was neither structured nor systematic. Therefore, it partially helped the client. With the passage of time, however, attempts have been made to provide systematic guidance and counselling in schools and colleges. It is also true that human beings are always beset with problems. Whether people who lived years ago faced more serious problems than people today is highly debatable. Fortunately, our methods of problem solving have advanced greatly in recent years. The giving of professional assistance has become an accepted and vital part in our society. Examples include medical help from physicians and mental health by psychiatrists. During the past half century, a new movement designed to give professional assistance to the young people in schools and colleges has improved and developed. It has been identified as guidance and counselling services, a dynamic, constantly changing field. 12 In the view of Meek (as cited in Makinde, 1990), guidance in the colleges has become necessary due to the greater complexity of modern living. This has resulted in increased pressure that can be seen from maladaptive behaviours and hindrances to learning. Guidance should, therefore, aim at correction of maladjustment. For guidance to be effective and useful, it must become an integral part of the educational programme. This is because guidance is part and parcel of the education system, (Gibson & Mitchell, 1995). Regarding guidance as part of education is very necessary because ignorance of guidance and counselling services in the training colleges on the part of the students is a clear indication that, they have not been exposed to the services in the basic schools as well as senior high schools. If this all important programme had been fused into the educational programme, it could have prevented many delinquent problems in the training colleges. Elkind (as cited in Chauhan, 2002) revealed that adolescents are egocentric. They want to be autonomous, free and independent of the adult control; an attempt by the adult to suppress these, give rise to resentment, uprising and confrontation with adults. The adolescent has a keen desire for independence, and this sometimes leads to friction and conflict between him and his parents. He also battles with the problems of growing up alone. He is torn between resenting adult interference and wanting to confide in them. An adolescent must know what he can do in order to know who he is. The mistakes he makes are generally due to inability to make account of factors that are beyond his experiences, 13 hence the need for guidance and counselling. The young adults may still be ignorant about how to deal with family pressures which they experience (Chauhan, 2002). Furthermore, the student body is heterogeneous in composition it represents many people from different cultural backgrounds being trained to take care of young ones. There is therefore, the need for a programme which will help identify the various groups derived from various cultures and backgrounds and provide their various needs. Guidance and counselling programmes in the colleges will be relevant to this situation (Gibson & Mitchell, 1995). In addition to facts already discussed, the training college curriculum is subject matter oriented as well as practical oriented. Many of the students found their way into the training college as a matter of course or pressure from parents as a last resort. To such students, there is emotional stress which should be properly handled through subject tutors and the counsellor co-operation. Guidance and counselling programmes run in training colleges are therefore, relevant in aiding the total development of students into useful beings in the society. To help treat this chapter very well, there will be a brief discussion on the following topics. A. The Concept of Guidance. - Services of Guidance. 14 B. The Concept of Counselling. C. The Role/Responsibility of the Guidance Coordinator. D. Counselling Adolescents. E. Counselling Adults. F. Characteristics of Effective Guidance Programme. G. Empirical Evidence. H. Summary of Literature Review. Theoretical Review The Concept of Guidance Guidance may be defined as professional aid to individuals and small groups in dealing with commonly recurring personal, educational and vocational needs and problems (Oladele, 1987). Makinde (1990) stated that the guidance service is classified according to the area of life in which the problems occur. According to Shertzer and Stone (1981), Guidance as a concept denotes the utilization of a point of view in order to help an individual; as an educational construct, it refers to the provision of experiences that helps students to understand themselves; and as a service, it refers to procedures and processes organized to achieve a helping relationship. Guidance is therefore a process, not an end result. Learning how to solve problems is more important than the solution of a specific problem. “Guidance is a learning process” (Strange, 1983). Shertzer and Stone, (1981), see Guidance as the process of helping the individual to understand himself and his environment/world so that he can utilize his potential. 15 As it is true with all definitions, there is the need for clarification and qualification of key words as they are used by various writers to explain guidance. First is the word “process”. A process is any phenomena that continually change over time. The use of the word here denotes that Guidance is not a single event but involves a series of actions or steps progressing towards a goal. Secondly, the words “helping” and “aiding” are defined as assisting or availing. Many helping occupations such as Psychiatry, Psychology, Social work, and the like have as their major purpose the prevention and remediation of human difficulties. Guidance does the same thing. Thirdly, the word “individual” refers to students in the school setting. “Understanding themselves and their world/environment” means that individuals come to know who they are (unique individuals); become aware of their personal identity; perceive clearly the nature of their person; experience their world, the aggregate surroundings and the people with whom they interact more deeply and completely(Assoah, 2007). “Guidance services are formalized actions taken by the school to make guidance operational and available to all students” (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). These services may be divided into three main components: they are educational guidance, vocational guidance and personal/social guidance. Educational guidance helps individual students to function more effectively in their school. It assists the students to know and act in terms of the present and future educational needs and opportunities. 16 Vocational guidance is designed to aid the individual in choosing and adapting to a vocation. It assists students to choose an occupation, prepare for it, and progress in it. It provides the student with an understanding of the world of work (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). Vocational guidance, therefore, plays a part in familiarizing individuals with the term “dignity of labour” and “work value”. Personal/social guidance is aimed at solving students’ social and emotional problems. For normal development, the student requires peace, acceptance and security both from school and home. In order to get rid of personal maladjustments such as unhappiness, annoyance, anger, excessive frustration and many others, students must be helped to cope with problems and difficulties of the school and the home (Shertzer &Stone, 1981). The Services of Guidance Guidance services most commonly found in schools are organized around the Orientation or adaptive services, Appraisal services, Information services, Placement services, Consultation services, Follow-up services, Evaluation services and Counselling services. Orientation or Adaptive Service Orientation services are provided to help students adjust better in any new environment (Makinde, 1990). At the beginning of each academic year, new students are admitted into primary, secondary, training colleges and other tertiary institutions. Many of these students get lost socially and psychologically in their new environment. This is because they no longer enjoy the psychological support of parents, friends, and formal teachers. Also the new environment with its rules, regulations and administrative set up, appears completely 17 different. Orientation service is, therefore, designed to help students make adjustments during such critical transition periods. Programmes are drawn up to familiarize them with the overall school situation. They are introduced to physical plants, administrative setup, rules and regulations governing student conducts, the use of school facilities, new course contents teaching staff and how the school guidance programme can serve their needs. In schools where there are guidance coordinators, orientation service enable new students to interact with their guidance coordinators for the first time (Taylor & Buku, 2006). Appraisal or Data Collection Service The appraisal service is designed to collect, analyze and use variety of objective and subjective personal psychological and social data about each student. It is for the purpose of better understanding of students in order to assist them to understand themselves (Shertzer & Stone, 1981). Without adequate and reliable information on any individual, it will be a difficult task to help the individual solve his problem or plan realistically. It is also a way of helping an individual to acquire and organize useful information about him. This helps him to know his strengths and weaknesses to enable him make reasonable choices from all alternatives at his disposal (Makinde, 1990). Systematic analysis of student’s information permits teachers, counsellors, parents and school authorities to help students. This can only be realized through sound techniques of collecting, organizing, interpreting and using relevant student information. 18 Information or Distributive Service While the appraisal service collects information about the student, the information service gives information to the students (Shertzer & stone, 1981). These services aim at providing students with better knowledge of educational, vocational and social opportunities. When this is done, it enables students to make informed decisions and choices. The main objective of the information service is to stimulate individual student to evaluate themselves and their opportunities. The service also aims at making feasible choice in the light of students’ unique characteristics and opportunities. This helps the student to accept responsibilities for the choice and initiate a course of action in consonance with the choice. Information service may be educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional or moral (Olayinka, as cited in Makinde, 1990). Placement Service Placement is designed to enhance the development of student by helping them to select and utilize opportunities within the school and in the labour market (Marion, 1981). According to Pecku (1991), placement starts with information and ends when students have been able to carry out their plans and have been followed up to find out the progress they are making. 19 He further indicated that it is concerned with helping students to move from one level of educational training to the next, for instance from senior high school to the training college and from the training college to the university. According to Miller (as cited in Makinde, 1990), placement occurred in three phases: 1. Pre-placement – information about available opportunities. 2. Placement – development and implementation of plans. 3. Post placement – helping the student to adapt and adjust to placement. Placement can be vocational, educational or personal/social. It helps the student to identify a place where he will utilize his abilities to the satisfaction of his interest and needs. Consultation Service This service brings together the guidance coordinator and other people to work with the student so that they can help him. These people exchange ideas about the student, collect as much information as they can about and plan what could be done for him. Consultation becomes imperative when the problem of the student has to do with or is caused by another person. Marion (1981), states that, here, the counsellor mediates between the client and other people who interact with the student and who are the cause of student’s worry. The counsellor consults on behalf of the client with the client’s consent. It may involve discussion with people concerned with clients welfare for example doctors, psychiatrists, and parents/guardians. 20 Follow-up Service The follow-up service is a systematic method of finding out how individuals are getting on in places where they have been placed (Pecku, 1991). As guidance coordinators work with students, it is necessary to follow them up in order to assess their progress. Any mistake and problems that are detected could then be resolved. According to Makinde (1990), the measurement of guidance outcome is very important since it is used in appraising the effectiveness or otherwise of the entire guidance programme. Feedback from follow–up techniques may include mail survey (questionnaire) personal interview and telephone interview. Bolge (1984) stresses that this area is often overlooked. It deals with students who have left the school either as drop outs or graduates. Upon their strengths and weaknesses, the counsellor can assist other students in many more positive ways. Follow up is also concerned with the impact of guidance programmes on student. Evaluation Service It is the use of scientific methods to find out whether a programme is working well and is effectively achieving its goals (Pecku, 1991). Unlike the other services, evaluation services are not direct services to students or clients, but more for the benefit of school officials and the community and the guidance programme. Through evaluation it becomes possible for the school to discover extent to which the programme has achieved its desired goals and what changes or improvements are needed. 21 Miller (as cited in Makinde, 1990) is of the opinion that successes cannot be easily quantified. The researcher on the other hand is of the view that questionnaires and interviews covering the intangible outcomes can be responded to by the clients. In this way, it may be quantified for evaluation purposes. Counselling Service Counselling is one of the services of guidance. Pecku (1991) observes that counselling is a person to person relationship. It is a process that allows the student to explore his own feelings. It has been described as the core of all guidance services. As such almost all other services make use of counselling (Gibson &Mitchell, 1995). To Makinde (1990), counselling is a service designed to help an individual analyze his capabilities, achievement, interests and mode of judgments in relation to new decisions he has made or has to make. Behavioural counselling is the process of helping people to learn how to solve their interpersonal, emotional and decision making problems (Krumboltz &Thoreson as cited in Makinde,1997). As a process, counselling goes on over a period of time. It is on-going. As a relationship, it involves face to face interaction between the counsellor and the counsellee. Counselling is the heart of the guidance programme. It is more intimate and more confidential than guidance. It is characterized by trust, respect as well as complete absence of coercion. 22 The Role/Responsibilities of the College Counsellor Different groups of people seem to hold different views on what the college counsellor’s role should be. Pietrofessa (1980), reports that students look on the college counsellor as an academic advisor who is expected to know something about courses, curricular and educational, as well as vocational opportunities. Shertzer and Stone (1981) and Miller (as cited in Makinde, 1990), are of the view that the college counsellor’s role includes counselling students on matters of self- understanding, decision making and planning. Other roles are consulting with staff and parents on issues about students. They also play the role of understanding and using information about students. Their roles include the interpretation of information collected about students to school administrators for curriculum development. Shertzer and Stone (1981) noted that the counsellor has responsibilities towards students, staff, parents (guardians), the community and his or her profession. The counsellor additionally helps students in the following ways: 1. Demonstrating respect for worth, dignity and quantity and quality of student human right. 2. Showing concern for and assisting in the planning of the student’s educational, career, personal and social development. 3. Aiding the student in self-evaluation, self-understanding and self-direction enabling him to make decisions consistent with the immediate and long range goals. 23 4. Assists students in developing healthy habits and positive attitudes and values. 5. Assisting students in understanding their strengths and weaknesses, interest, values, potentials and limitations. The responsibilities of the counsellor to the school staff are as follows: 1. Contributes to curri culum development and co-operates wi th administrators and teachers in the refinement of methods for individual learning. 2. Contributes to the development of flexible curriculum to provide meaningful education for each student. 3. Utilizes modern technology and para-professional personnel to disseminate educational and career information. He interprets this to professional staff 4. Assists in research related to students’ needs by conducting studies related to the improvement of educational programmes and services. The counsellor also performs the following responsibilities to parents: 1. Makes discreet and professional use of information and shares information during conferences. 2. Shares with parents and guardians information related to student and interprets pertinent data about the counsellee’s academic record and progress. 3. Interprets the guidance programme of the school to the parent or guardian and familiarizes him with the guidance service available. 24 4. Involves the parent/guardian in the guidance activities within the school. The counsellor’s responsibility to the community is that, he/she should have knowledge of such service as health clinics, Planned Parenthood clients, voluntary programmes, co-operative programmes, and apprenticeship of labour organizations, chamber of commerce and other community agencies. The coordinator works in conjunction with these agencies for the benefits of the student. The counsellor performs the following responsibilities toward his profession: 1. Must have an understanding of his own characteristic and their effect on counselling. 2. Is aware of his level of professional competence and present it accurately to others 3. Continue to develop processional competence and maintain an awareness of contemporary trends in and outside the school community. 4. Discusses with related professional associates (counsellors, teachers, administrators) practices which may be implemented to strengthen and improve standards or conditions of education and employment. Counselling Adolescents Hall (as cited in Santrock, 2005) referred to the adolescent years as a time of “storm and stress”. The storm-and-stress view is Hall’s concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflicts and mood swings. The adolescent may be nasty to appear one moment and kind the next moment. At one time he or she may want to be alone yet seconds later companionship. Freud (as cited in Santrock, 2005) described adolescent as sexually driven and conflicted. 25 Adolescence is a transitional period between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood or maturity. It occurs roughly between the ages of twelve and twenty. This is a period in every person’s life when all seems to be confused; when nothing is good in the eyes of the perceiving adolescent; when he is in ‘no man’s land’ (Lewing as cited in Chauhan, 2002) and when his role is not clearly defined. Adults describe this period as a period of body contour and stature resembling that of an adult (Meek, as cited in Makinde, 1990). Most studies that have been carried out in this field (Havighurst, Mead & Abiri as cited in Makinde,1997) have referred to this developmental stage as a transitional period with three phases: 1. Biological, refers to that span of a young person’s life between the obvious onset of puberty and the completion of bone growth. 2. sociological, r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e t r a n s i t i o n a lp e r i o d f r o m d e p e n d e n t childhood to self – sufficient adulthood. 3. psychological, referred to as a “marginal situation” in which new adjustments have to be made namely, those that distinguish child behaviour from adult behaviour in a given society. Characteristics of Adolescence In physical development, puberty occurs during adolescence. Biological changes at puberty clearly differentiate in physical development of males and females. These changes are initiated by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. 26 The growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones initiate change that result in the individual reaching his/her full physical size and sex maturation. This stage is characterized by the development of the secondary sexual characteristics. In terms of social and emotional development, associated with puberty are the problem of sexual identity and a person’s perceptions of self (self-esteem). Puberty triggers off an interest in the opposite sex and the desire to get to know them better. Adolescents are concerned about how the opposite sex perceives the other so both boys and girls worry about pimples, their figure etc. Most of all, they do not want to be different from their peers. They want to belong and to be accepted. This is what produces peer pressure. This coupled with the high energy level during adolescence make it imperative that young people channel their energy and interest constructively. Adolescents also develop cognitively (mentally). From the point of view of Piaget, the adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic and logical ways. During this period, all aspects of intelligence (e.g. judgment, reasoning, comprehension, memory and concentration) mature rapidly. Adolescents are no longer satisfied with being told what to do. They want to know why and to contribute. They may, therefore, challenge or rebel (Dulcan, 1997). Values and moral development also occur in adolescence. Another aspect of cognitive development that changes during adolescence is reasoning about moral issue. Many adolescents are searching for something to believe in that will make sense out of their world and give meaning to their lives. This may lead to increased religious activity and sometimes some fanaticism. 27 Counselling Needs of Adolescents Adolescence is a delicate period when boys and girls are faced with special needs and problems that they never had before, and problems that are somewhat different from what they encountered in childhood or will encounter as adults. Certain needs are accentuated, and a series of development task must be mastered properly. When the needs of this age are not adequately provided for, the problems of indecision, uncertainty, conflict, instability, unpredictability, perhaps leading to delinquency, alcoholism, career muddle and hindered heterosexuality may surface, hence the need for guidance and counselling to help adolescents find solutions to their many problems or better still help prevent them. There is a wide variation in the age at which an adolescent’s growth spurt start and end when puberty takes place; adolescents become pre-occupied with their looks and are often dissatisfied with how they look. They want to belong and to be accepted. Therefore in order for an adolescent to adjust and overcome the needs, the counsellor must assist the individual to accept himself/herself emphasizing on uniqueness and individual differences. Here, the individual accepts his physique, weaknesses, strengths and values. This will make the adolescent understand why somebody can do something she cannot do and also she does something uniquely. The counsellor should help to build the self-esteem and confidence of the individual. Hormonal imbalances in adolescents could lead to mood swings and the counselor should assure the adolescent that it is transitional and will not stay with him/her permanently. Counsellors also help the 28 adolescents to address their personal problems by giving information and equipping them with decision–making skills. The child comes to know about sex from the early age. Surveys made by Ramsey and Hamilton (as cited by Chauhan, 2002) prove that children cannot be kept ignorant of sex knowledge. Puberty triggers off an interest in the opposite sex. Older males may confuse their physical maturity with emotional maturity and this may lead into early sexual activity. It is therefore the role of the counsellor to assist them to understand such biological changes. The counsellors should also help them to identify their interests and develop hobbies so that they can harness their sexual energies positively (Dulcan, 1997). Stanley Hall perceives adolescence as a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings (Hall, as cited in Santrock, 2005) Morgan (as cited in Chauhan, 2002) emphasizing the importance of emotions writes that emotions are basic, primeval forces of great power and influence , designed by nature to enable the organism to cope with circumstances which demand the utmost effort for survival or success, or to “add colour and spice to living”. If there had been no emotion in the life of the organism, then life would have seized and progress would have been checked. The counsellor should assure the adolescent of the emotional support of their parents, teacher and guardians. Also, he has to help them to build their emotional strength by developing positive attitude that will enable them to detach from their parents emotionally at the appropriate time. 29 As adolescence and emerging adulthood unfold, achievement takes on a more central role in development, work becomes a major aspect of life, and a stronger interest in careers emerges (Santrock, 2005). The greatest single problem which bother adolescent mind is uncertainty about their future vocation. What they will do after school haunts their mind especially when they see thousands of adolescents unemployed. The counsellor should help the adolescent understand his strengths, weaknesses, capabilities, interest and aptitudes and the correlation with career. The adolescent must also be helped to understand the competitive nature of education today and know that his/her achievements will determine the educational programme he/she can pursue. The counsellor must also provide relevant information on careers, job prospects and remuneration, writing of application letters, assist them to prepare comprehensive curriculum vitaes (CVs) and how to conduct one’s self during interviews. Adolescents should also be assisted by the counsellor to develop positive attitudes of human relations. The counsellor should mount career conference and invite other professionals to interact with adolescents. Through counseling, adolescents should be assisted to access scholarship and other source of finance toward their education and career development. The problems of the adolescent have multiplied with the socio – economic development of a country and money is one of such problems. The adolescent is engaged in many activities which involve money yet some feel shy of asking for it from their parents. Some parents too are conservative in providing money for extra activities of their sons and daughters (Chauhan, 2002). Counsellors should assist adolescents to spend within their means. Parents should be helped 30 by counsellors to support the adolescent financially and if possible provide opportunities for them to be employed during vacations. Adolescents should be helped to distinguish their needs from their wants so that they can depend on the little resources available. Counselling Adults The Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1995) defines adult as a person (animal) that has grown to full size and strength. Thus, adult in the British law is someone over 18years old and capable of paying the admission fee but children get into school free of charge. A working definition of adult is a person who is of age (18 years and above) and matured enough to take certain family as well as social responsibilities in the society. According to Gould (as cited in Parrillo, 2008), the central goal of young adulthood (18 to 30 years) is establishing a primary relationship in an occupation and in an appropriate social milieu. Some researchers believe that personality continues to change in the second half of life span – Middle aged people are less self–centered and more sympathetic, have better coping skills, and are more productive and dependable than younger people. People may experience a mid – life crisis when success in one area of life leaves them feeling unfulfilled and ready for a decisive shift of career or life style. More commonly, there is simply a mid–life transition, a period of taking stock of one’s life and formulating new goals. Counselling adults will therefore help them get their focus well set and prevents embarrassment and stress. All counsellors are accredited and are committed to providing service and are experienced in dealing with a broad range of issues including the areas where adults may need 31 counselling. These are: 1. Child abuse surviving adults (sexual, physical, emotional and neglect abuse) 2. Substance abuse and depression. 3. Anxiety, stress, panic attacks and fear. 4. Guilt, shame and post-traumatic stress disorders. 5. Relationship difficulties and marital problems. 6. HIV/AIDS and STI cases, etc. Counselling services equip the counsellor with the requisite knowledge in offering such services to assist client as to how to solve day-to-day problem. These services include the following: 1. Information provision 2. Appraisal/testing. 3. counselling (helping process). 4. Recording, placement, follow-up, referral/research and evaluation. 5. Diagnosis and recommendations 32 Categories of Counselling for Adults Adults (young adults, middle-age, and older adults) have their counselling needs, therefore, adults counselling is best approached by counsellors when they are able to classify adult needs into personal and social counselling, crisis counselling, vocational/career counselling, and academic/educational counselling. Personal and social counselling involves individual along the line of problems other than educational or vocational. These problems have to do with emotional disturbances. For instance: 1. Adults with HIV/AIDS and STI problems where isolation, neglect, depression and hopelessness are featured. 2. Adult survivors of child abuse. Brammer (1988) states that crisis is a state of disorganization in which the individual faces frustrations to important life goals or profound disruption of his life cycle and method of coping with stress. The various types of crisis could be described as: 1. Marital problem like divorce. 2. Adults with learning disabilities 3. Accident victims like fire disaster with deformities and incapable to work. 4. Adults with grief and bereavement for example, where one’s parents and siblings die or financial support is disrupted by sudden death of parents or guardian: sickness and treatment of incurable disease. 5. Loss of position, job or esteem, etc. 33 Individuals may experience one or more of the above crisis and with difficulty in coping with life. Therefore, adults in crisis will need counselling. Olayinka (as cited in Makinde,1990) says vocational/career counselling is any assistance given by the guidance counsellor or career master/mistress to another person to outline his or her own resources and his/her environmental opportunities in the process of self-understanding, planning, decision making and coping with problems relative to his/her world of work. They may need help to understand their interest and abilities through accurate and reliable information about the world of work, the world of education, employability skills and decision making skills. Olayinka (as cited in Makinde, 1990) refers to academic counselling as activities designed to assist all categories of learners from primary, senior high to tertiary levels. It involves counselling the gifted, talented, handicapped and average learners in resolving various types of academic problems. It aims at assisting the learner to develop most of his/her educational opportunities. This means, educating him/her towards becoming a cultivated individual on a life activity, which will be socially useful and personally satisfying. It also involves giving out information in relation to educational prospects and choosing academic programmes. We also have people with special problems who are discriminated and are not given education. Among such are the physically handicapped, the blind, the dumb, etc. They also have counselling needs which have to be met. 34 Research studies indicate that culturally different clients frequently do not take advantage of counselling services, and that if they do, they frequently terminate the relationship prematurely (Sue, 1990). It was also found that the termination rate for Asian- American blacks, Chicanos and Indians was 50% after the first interview, this compared with a fair termination percentage rate for Anglo clients (Sue, 1990). It is evident from these findings that counsellors must be specially prepared to work with the culturally different groups. The issues related to counselling women are many and varying from sex discrimination and sex role stereotyping to career choice and support services for women combining profession and family roles especially for those re-entering the work force. Research investigation into all facets of counselling women is expanding and is an attempt to enable counsellors to assist women in the new personal and vocational choices they are making. Sexist attitudes have permeated in social, religious and educational insti