Why is rigid-body motion important?
April 1115, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan NATIONALISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST The Sunni Empire fell apart during WWI. Britain and France became greatly involved in the Middle East during WWI and WWII. o Mandate System – (British and French came in when the Ottoman Empire broke up and instilled this system) neocolonialism, protection, exploitation, essentially it was all about control with the promise of independence somewhere down the road Middle Eastern nationalism – it was all about modernization, modernize the th economy, society, etc. through reforms (bring it into the 20 century); revival of Islam (Shi’ites and Sunnis: the division between these two happened soon after the death of Muhammad), Islamic fundamentalism, emphasis on getting back to a way of life that is reflected in Islamic teaching, live according to the Quran; oil/oil money was also very much sought after, the Middle East has been galvanized by this new found wealth in oil Turkey – was an ally of the Germans during WWI, so when the Germans were defeated the Ottoman Empire was “finished off,” and the modern state of Turkey arose, there were British and French troops in Turkey o Mustafa Kamal (Ataturk) – “the father of modern Turkey,” nationalist, he and his followers wanted to get western troops/power out of Turkey and become independent Revolution – led by Mustafa Kamal, they overthrow the old government (Sultan), they make it a republic, Kamal then becomes the first president and writes a constitution Kemalism – he is going to modernize and secularize Turkey, modernize along western lines, he mimics the west (“modernization = westernization”), he wants to be an equal player with the west, he even required people to dress like the West Caliph – leader of the Islamic community, Kamal thought they had too much power and exerted too much religious influence over Turkey so he abolished it Islamic Law – Kamal also abolishes this and establishes a new law code that is very Western/European, law is no longer informed by the Quran Polygamy – abolished this as well (men could no longer have more than one woman/lover) Universal Suffrage – Kamal established this, so everyone could now vote (including women) April 1115, 2016 Metric System/Education – adopts this system and also encourages higher education in Turkey Iran – this modern state is huge and is very rich in oil, oil fields were found here during WWII, Shi’ite State o Shah Reza Pahlavi – was in power from 1925 to 1941, came to power as an officer in the Iranian army during the overthrow of the previous government, he wants to modernize Iran in Western ways (much like Kamal), he tries to implement similar reforms as Kamal, again he is mimicking the West (it’s not as popular here in Iran as in Turkey), he let in a lot of Western money and investors (not very popular either) Britain and Russia came in to help overthrow Pahlavi (because of how unpopular he was among the Iranian people) and to gain oil fields in Iran o Muhammad Reza Pahlavi (Shah) – son of Shah Reza Pahlavi, he is put into power after his father, he is very authoritarian, censorship of press, wants to modernize Iran and grow economy, he lets in foreign investors and uses foreign money, he is very familiar with colonialism and repression, he also mimics the West (this all makes him very unpopular), he had very poor relations with the Shi’ite Clergy, this man was not a religious person Ayatollah Khomeini – leader of the Shi’ite Clergy, became weary of the Shah’s regime, he attempted a revolution in 1963, was forced to go to Paris (exiled there) but this became a rallying point for all those opposed to the Shah, he is the inspiration of this movement of dissidence o White Revolution – Shah’s idea to modernize Iran, it started with land reform, had huge plots of lands in the hands of a few people, peasants wanted their own land, the idea was to grow the Iranian economy by granting land reforms, he creates plots and redistributes land (the plots are so tiny you can’t live off of them), this creates a class of impoverished people who leave the countryside and go to the city to try and find work, it was also about growing the industrial sector, he is banking on foreign investment/oil money, this drove a lot of small entrepreneurs out of business, Iran saw more big Western companies coming in, there weren’t enough jobs in the cities for the peasants, tries to encourage education and a new way of life, overall this movement went really badly, it blows up o Iranian Revolution – (19781979) students were protesting in 1978, the Khomeini is still stuck in Paris but is communicating with his followers who rally behind him, they are very critical of the Shah, the Shah’s April 1115, 2016 response was to send in troops and kill these students (in the Shi’ite world, it is believed that when someone dies in this way there is a mourning procession of the family/friends in memory of the deceased, there are almost a hundred processions in memory of these students) so Shah tries to suppress these processions because he doesn’t like the reminder of what he did, Shah would direct fire on the processions (death > more mourning), the processions became bigger and bigger because it became a sense of protest as well, the Shah knows he is slipping from power, Shah finally ops for exile at the end of 1978 Ayatollah Khomeini returns in February 1979 from Paris, and his supporters are many, he assumes control of government and creates a Shi’ite State (no split between government and religion), the Shah was so hated for his allowance of foreigners into Iran and for his underestimation of the Shi’ites, so this was a relatively easy move for Khomeini to create this Shi’ite State, the clergy is embedded within the local communities Egypt – had been an object of Western imperialism, the Suez canal was a huge part of Western economy, when the Ottoman Empire breaks up Britain obtained a mandate in Egypt (Britain became a “protector” of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine through the Mandate System) o Nasser – he is an Arab nationalist and a nationalist leader of Egypt in the 1950s, in 1952 he and others participated in a military overthrow of the Mandate System and an overthrow of the local king of Egypt and they establish themselves in power (Nasser is the head of power), he inspired Arabs elsewhere like in Iraq and with the Palestinians, he becomes the face of Arab nationalism Nasser policies – He is a socialist. This works hand in hand with Arab nationalism in the Middle East. Land reforms were a big part of his program. He redistributes massive amounts of lands, so workers can have their own land to work. There is also nationalization of industry. He wanted to modernize the economy based on technology. He promoted the adoption of more modern tools. This also included nationalizing the Suez Canal, which was built by the British and French. Nasser made this a major international issue and eventually a war. Suez War – 1956, British and French vs. Nasser/Egypt Israel gets involved with the British and French in the Suez War, Israel says they have their own reasons for getting involved in this war April 1115, 2016 o The U.S. will support Israel and the U.S.S.R. will support Nasser/Egypt. The Middle East will become like a Cold War playground. They say the Suez War was an Israeli victory, but it really just demonstrates the growing tension in the Middle East. Aswan Dam – Nasser’s program, this dammed the Nile River so it doesn’t flood, it essentially creates a huge lake so they water can be used for irrigation and such, Nasser went to the world bank and asked for money (Britain and France were going to give him money but ended up backing out), damming this endangered historic monuments so it meant moving this huge monuments to new grounds in order to save them Israel – comes into existence in 1948, in the late 19 century Jewish nationalism found in expression in Zionism which was the expression of the Jews to have their own nationstate, it emerges first in central Europe, the original homeland was Palestine that would become Israel o Balfour Declaration – 1917 the U.N. said they believed there should be a nationstate created for the Jewish population, they express their willingness to support the Jews (felt bad about the Holocaust), Israel is put in place in 1948 (however it was almost immediately attacked by the Arabs in Palestine) Then in the 19201930s many Jews move to the land of Palestine, and momentum develops here. All the antiSemitism under Hitler and the Holocaust led many more Jews to move to Palestine. The Palestinian/Arab population was meant for the Jewish people and the Arab people to both stay in Palestine (split the land). War came to head around 1948 when Israel was established. The Israelis won the war and began to expand (there were many Palestinian refugees as a result). Many of the refugees went to refugee camps in adjacent Arab territory (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, etc.). There are still Palestinians that live in Israel (in the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip). There is much conflict as a result. o 1 War – 1948 over Israel (Israelis won) nd o 2 War – 1956 over Suez Canal in Egypt (Israelis won) o Six Day War – 1967, Egypt was massing troops on the Israeli boarder, so Israel decided to hold a strike against Egypt on their boarders (this was a stunning victory for Israel), this only lasted 6 days, they accomplished a major expansion for Israel (they increased 4 times their size: picked up Jerusalem, West Bank, Gaza, and the Sinai Peninsula) o Yom Kippur War – in 1973 during the holy days of Yom Kippur and Ramadan, the Arabs strike back against Israel, there was much devastation, but Israel got it together and counterattacked the Arabs (Israel ends up pulling out the win) Israel appeared invincible. April 1115, 2016 Peace Process – after the Yom Kippur War the PLO got involved o PLO – a political group (Palestinian Liberation Organization), it has a military arm and for much of its existence was a terrorist group (for example in 1973 the PLO attacked the Israelis in the Munich Olympics, they killed several athletes), the next year the Israelis shot down a Libyan aircraft o Jimmy Carter – in 1978 encouraged talks between Israel and the Arabs/Egypt/etc. o Anwar Sadat he encouraged these talks as well and worked closely with Menachem Begin o Camp David – 1979, Egypt came to recognize Israel as a nation and they called a 3year truce to see if they could workout some of their issues In some parts of the occupied territories, Israelis moved in and set up housing and kicked out Palestinians out of their own land. o Intifada – 1987, refers to an uprising of Palestinians against the Israelis, included civil disobedience, violence, it shows how miserable things are for the Palestinians in their land, this leads to Oslo o Oslo Accords – 1993, President Bill Clinton met with Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat to try and solves the problems in Palestine with Israel, the PLO agrees to recognize the existence of Israel, and Israel agrees to take steps to turn Gaza and the West Bank over to the Palestinians The PLO later becomes like a political party with Yasser Arafat as the head in Gaza. o Second Intifada – 2000, there are more uprisings and more unrest between Israel and Palestine, the Israelis still respond with violence “EYES ON THE PRIZE” VIDEO America’s Civil Right Movement o Albany, Georgia o Birmingham, Alabama There was much racism and segregation in the U.S. during this time. Blacks became unhappy with how they were being treated and began to demand equal rights. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led the SCLC in hopes of gaining support for equal rights for blacks. o 16 Street Church (huge protest was held here) o “Bull” Connor put the protest to rest. Riots moved to other cities around the country. August 28, 1963 – Black March on D.C. o Over 200,000 people came to march o There were motivational speeches from a number of people Dr. King gave his famous “I have a dream” speech