What are the most important models of Part IV?
Chapters 17 and 18 Chapter 17 The Theban Saga Differences between Saga and Myth o Myths are stories of the gods and their relations with humans o Sagas have perceptible relationship to history Quest style of tale o 10 elements 1. Hero has elements of the extraordinary linked to his birth and childhood 2. He faces opposition from the start… and as a result he must prove his worth by surmounting challenges 3. His enemy usually instigates his achievement 4. He is helped by at least one ally 5. He faces seemingly insurmountable obstacles 6. Conflicts with monstrous opponents present him with challenges 7. He may have to observe taboos 8. Death itself is the ultimate conquest, usually achieved by going to and returning from the underworld 9. The hero's success may be rewarded with marriage, security, wealth or power 10. But knowledge, enlightenment, redemption or purification are also art of the hero's attainment There are many sagas in the ancient Greek World o Mostly connected with cities and areas important during the late Bronze Age o This is during the Mycenaean era o Theban Cycle Cadmus (husband of Harmonia and brother of Europa) Founded Thebes Europa and Cadmus originally came from Tyre Zeus fell in love with Europa and took her to Greece in the form of a bull Cadmus set out from Tyre to find his sister Eventually asked the oracle who told him not to worry about her Instead, he should settle in Greece; he did, and founded Thebes He was led to the site by a sacred cow As the companions of Cadmus went to draw water from a spring to perform a sacrifice they were attacked by a serpent, the guardian of the spring Cadmus killed the creature and then sacrificed the sacred cow to Athena Athena told Cadmus to sow the teeth of the serpent From the teeth, men sprung out of the ground fully armored They fought one another until only 5 were left, they were the Spartoi who became the nobles of Thebes To appease Ares for killing the serpent, Cadmus because a slave for a year At the end of the year he was given Harmonia, the daughter of Ares, as a bride She was given a cloak and a necklace at the wedding Cadmus and Harmonia reigned a long time and introduced writing to their people At the end of their lives they were turned into serpents and eventually entered Elysium Cadmus was succeeded as king by his grandson Pentheus Pentheus Was succeeded by Labducus Who is said to have perished in a similar to that of Pentheus He was succeeded by his infant son, Laius; but Lycus (the maternal great-uncle of the king) became regent Lycus was eventually killed and Laius became sole ruler Death of Lycus Chthonius was one of the Spartoi, and his niece, Antiope was loved by Zeus and bore two sons, Zethus who became a herdsman and Amphion who became a musician When they grew to adulthood, they killed Lycus so that Laius could become king They tied Dirce, wife of Lycus, to the horns of a bull which dragged her to her death This is in opposition to the abduction of Europa by Zeus in the shape of a bull Laius became king of Thebes Laius He had been staying with Pelops, king of Elis, while Lycus was regent When he left to return to Thebes, Laius abducted Chrysippus son of Pelops, with whom he had faqllen in love For this crime, Laius was cursed to die at the hands of his own son Oedipus When Oedipus was born to Laius and Jocasta, Laius had the baby exposed on Mount Cithaeron with a spike driven through his ankles The servant charged with the task of killing the baby by exposure could not bring himself to do so Therefore he gave the baby to a Shepherd, who in turn gave him to Polybus and Merope, king and Queen of Corinth Grew up as prince of Corinth, and discovered that his fate was to kill his father and marry his mother He had heard a rumor that Polybus and Merope were not his parents, so he went to the oracle The oracle told him to avoid his homeland, for he was fated to kill his father and marry his mother; so he avoided Corinth, which he thought was his home He met a party of people on the road, there was a fight, and he killed them all The old man whom Odepus killed was the king of Thebes, Laius, the father of Oedipus He did not know that he had just killed the king of Thebes and his father A Sphinx was plaguing Thebes Sphinx= Strangler (body of a lion, wings of a bird, head of a woman) Ate everyone who could not answer its riddle Odeipus solved the riddle and became king of Thebes; and married the Queen, Jocasta They had four children, and then a plague hit Thebes Discovered that the cause of the plague was the fact that the murdered of the old king, Laius had been unpunished for so many years This led to the search for the killed of Laius, which Oedipus carried out with vigor When Oedipus and Jocasta finally realized the truth, Jocasta hung herself and Oedipus stabbed his own eyes out He exiled himself from Thebes, and the brother of Jocasta, Creon, became king of Thebes Later, the two sons of Oedipus, Eteocles and Polynices, shared the kingship between them Eteocles ruled first for one year, and at the end of that year, he was to turn the rule over to Polynices but he refused So Polynices came forward to his father asking Oedipus for his blessing as he prepared to march with 6 other heroes against Thebes. Oedipus did not give him this blessing, however, and chastised him and reproached him for attacking his home city and his brother The blind Oedipus wandered, and eventually came to Colonus, where he was promised the protection of Theseus, king of Athens Creon, king of Thebes, tried to get Oedipus to return to Thebes; he even kidnapped his daughters Antigone and Ismene to try and convince him But Thesius sent soldiers to rescue the daughters and Creon relented, and the girls were returned to their father The end of the life of Oedipus After a time, Oedipus began to realize that he was about to die He went to a secluded place, washed and dressed himself appropriately and then the voice of Zeus was heard to say to him "Oedipus, why do you wait to go Too long hyou have delayed" Oedipus sent everyone else away, and disappeared from the earth The seven against Thebes Polynices, and his 6 friends (Adrastus, Tydeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus and Amphiaraus) still were determined to attack Thebes They all were eager to do so except Amphiaraus. Polynices bribed the wife of Amphiaraus with the necklace of Harmonia, and she convinced her husband to joint he expedition The attack against Thebes failed A hero was placed at each of the seven gates of Thebes by the defenders of the city The city of Thebes withstood the attack Eteocles, son of Oedipus and brother of Polynices, was one of the defenders against the city He and his brother killed each other The sons of the seven against Thebes, called the Epigoni, years later made a second attack against Thebes and were success The blind prophet, Tireseus Tireseus predicted that the attack of the seven against Thebes would fail He was also the one who told Oedipus that he was the murderer of Laius Tireseus is the prophet that Odysseus went to the Underworld to find He is in the Bacchae as the friend of Cadmus He was descended from the Spartoi of Thebes and lived for seven generations One story says he was stricken blind by Juno when he took Zeus' side in a quarrel and one story says he was blinded by Athena when he saw her naked Antigone, daughter of Oedipus tried to bury her brother Polynices This was forbidden by Creon, who became the king of Thebes again now that the sons of Oedipus had died Polynices had attacked the city, and Creon considered him an enemy However, Antigone said that the laws of the gods are more important than the laws of men, and that the body ought to be buried Antigone was condemned to death for her actions In the version of Sophocles Antigone died by suicide, in the version of Euripides, she went on to marry Haemon, son of Creon Chapter 18 Tantalus o Son of Zeus and a nymph, Plouto. o Invited gods to dinner and cooked up his son Pelops to serve to them o The gods do not eat Pelops, expect Demeter who ate a little from his shoulder o Pelops was restored and Tantalus was punished in Hades plagued with eternal hunger and thirst Pelops o According to Pindar, grew into a beautiful young man and Poseidon fell in love with him and took him up to Olympus as Zeus had abducted Ganymede o In the end of both stories of Pelops he is returned to life on earth o Became a semi-divine figure Sacrifices were made to him by the Greeks o Desired the hand of Hippodamia in marriage o To win her, he had to beat her father, Oenomaus in a chariot race o Pelops was given a head start, and Hippodamia was in the chariot with him o He asked Poseidon for a swift chariot and horses; and he was granted success o Another version says that the charioteer removed the pins from Oenomaus chariot o After Myrtilus helped Pelops win, he expected to be rewarded with being able to sleep with his wife o Instead, Pelops threw him over a cliff and Myrtilus cursed Pelops and his descendants; this curse led to the misfortunes of the house of Atreus o Had two sons Atreyus and Thyestes Aerope (Atreyus' wife), gave the fleece to Thyestes King for a while, and Atreus was banished Then Atreyus returned and became king and banished Thyestes Atreus then killed the children of Thyestes and gave them to their father to eat Atreyus o Had two sons Agamemnon and Menelaus Agamemnon was king of Mycenae Menelaus was king of Sparta and original husband of Helen of Troy When the Greeks went to war against the Trojans, Agamemnon was leader of the Greeks He sacrificed his daughter, Iphigenia, for favorable winds to take the fleet to troy Clytemnestra, his wife, hated him forever because of this When Agamemnon returned from war with his prize (princess Cassandra), Clytemnestra and her new lover (Aegisthus) kill Agamemnon in the bath Orestes and his sister Electra, both murdered their mother, Clytemnestra Orestes o Was pursued by furies o Went to Athens and pleaded his case before the council Areopagus o With the help of Athena, Orestes was acquitted and the furies became the Eumenides (kindly ones) and worshiped at Athens ever after