Which one or more of the following processes involves heat? a. The brakes in your car get hot when you stop. b. A steel block is held over a candle. c. You push a rigid cylinder of gas across a frictionless surface. d. You push a piston into a cylinder of gas, increasing the temperature of the gas. e. You place a cylinder of gas in hot water. The gas expands, causing a piston to rise and lift a weight. The temperature of the gas does not change.
Lifespan Development Online Lecture Piagets Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Once child reaches specific ages, they should be ready to learn new or more complex ways of thinking 4 Stages of Development (Very biologically determined) 1. Sensorimotor Stage: Birth-2. Babies rely on sensory and motor skills. Learn mental representation of objects(they know of an objects existence even when out of site a. At around 18 months, they learn object permanence. When a baby hasn’t learned this yet, a parent can put the babies toy under a blanket right in front of them and they wont know what happened to the toy. But at around 18 months, they would understand that the object still exists and is right there under the blanket. 2. Preoperational Stage: 2-7. Language skills develop a lot. Kids will participate in imaginary play. a. They are very egocentric at this age. They don’t think of other kids feelings when they steal a toy b. Arent able to think logically yet. Failure of Conservation: If a child in this stage is placed in front of two cups that are the same size with the same amount of water, they would know that the water is equal. If an adult then poured one of the glasses into a glass that was not as wide, the child would think that the thinner cup has more water, since its not as wide, the water appears higher. Even though it is still the same amount since it was just poured out of the other glass, they don’t understand that 3. Concrete Operational Stage: 7-11. Learn basic logical reasoning. Conservation development. Unable to think abstractly 4. Formal Operational Stage: 12-Beyond. Thinking becomes more advance. They develop abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning. a. Alex is taller than Brandon. Brandon is taller than Ali. Whose the tallest A person in this stage can answer this question correctly and easily because of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning. Younger stages would have to look at it and read it thoroughly to answer it Post Formal Thought: Adulthood. Moral reasoning that is stronger than logic. Being able to accept that others have different view than you. Some adults struggle with this development Sociocultural Theory (Created by Lev Vygotsky) Zone of Proximal Development: There is a limited amount of things children can do. Theres a lot of things that a child cannot do, and theres a lot of things that you can help a child do. The things you can help them do is the zone of proximal dev. o Teachers/parents need to help kids with what they can, so that the amount of stuff the kid can do expands. Scaffolding: Right amount of guided assistants. Help the child as much as you can, but don’t give them the answer. Still make them think a bit. Information Processing Approach: Uses a computer as an example of how humans retain knowledge. o Data is taken in -> info is processed and put into storage-> as we get older, we get better at processing info(like upgrading software on a computer) Social Development Earliest relationship formed is with primary caregiver. This relationship is called attachment relationship o This type of relation sets expectations for future relationships. This is called internal working model Parenting Styles Styles are judges by levels of warmth and levels of control Authoritarian: Low warmth, high control. Make a lot of rules, and most of the time aren’t age appropriate rules so the kid gets punished a lot. Authoritative: High warmth, moderate control. Usually most effective parenting style. Kids develop better social skills, and better relationships with teachers Permissive: High warmth, low control. These parents are trying to be more of a friend Indifferent/Univolved: low warmth and control. Don’t really know how to parent, don’t care what happens in the kids life. Most damaging parenting style Ecological Systems Theory Things that impact kids life. In order from most important impacts to least important Microsystem: Parents, friends, teachers, doctors and their interaction with the kid Mesosystem: How the people that interact with the kid, interact with each other. Do the parents get along Do the parents and teacher talk Exosystem: Things that affect the kid indirectly. Moms work, does she talk about it a lot, does she work late or long hours, etc Macrosystem: People never met who might influence child. Might be part of culture, religion, ethnicity, etc Chronosystem: How time affects development. When in the childs life things happen. A grandparent dies, this can impact a child in different ways, depending on the age of the child Book notes on next page Lifespan development book notes Change that is quantitative: More or less of something. (like a person changing by speaking more or less words). Quantitative=quantity Change that is qualitative: Essence of something has changed. Like the ability to think abstractly. Qualitative=quality A child who has the gene(nature, which is genetically determined) to be shy may be treated more calmly by the parents. Parents have to treat(nurture) their kids in different ways, depending on the traits of the child Abstract reasoning is when you can understand complex things you are learning about(like in class) that you’ve never experienced yourself or cannot directly experience. In class you may learn about an African tribe, or the anatomy of a neuron. When you can understand and reason about these things, you have developed abstract reasoning. (developed in formal operational stage) What happens at what points in your life By end of teen years, average female is now 128lbs and 5’4” and the average male is 155lbs and 5’9” During young adulthood, (21-39), we tend to have good health and be at our physical strength peak. Also our brain has reached its peak for the most part. In midlife years(40-59), we experience weight gain, muscle mass loss. These thing happen because decreased metabolism and hormones Senior years(60+): Hearing loss, vision problems, poor strength, decline in response time and decline in resistance to temperature change. More likely to have health problems like heart attack or stroke. Also, neurons in brain become blocked by plaque, meaning less neurotransmitters, this makes it take longer to remember things) In your 70s most elderly experience some kind of physical problem. 4 basic types of attachment a child has with parent. Created my the “Strang Situation” experiment 1. Secure: Get upset when parent leaves the room, and is happy when parent returns. Most kids are like this. Shows that parents are always there for child, and the child can trust the parent 2. Avoidance: Kids don’t want anything to do with parents it seem like. They don’t get upset when the parent leaves the room, they avoid the parent when they walk back in. This shows that the child is probably avoided a lot. The parent is very cold and the kid cant trust them, making them not trust others 3. Ambivalent: Kids will get very upset when parent leaves, and when the parent comes back, they will still cry and wont let parent comfort them, the child may even hit the parent. This shows that the parent may not have always been there for the child. These kids aren’t sure about being able to trust parents 4. Disorganized: This one is very rare. The child gets confused when parent leaves. They don’t really have a normal good or bad reaction. This is most likely caused my abuse, neglect, or living with someone with a severe mental illness. These kids grow up in a household a lot different than most kids, making their behaviors a lot different Strange situation test across the world has different results. Types of research Descriptive Research: Describes whats happening. Could be observing ones own behavior, and observing different age groups. Correlational Research: Look at 2 existing groups behaviors and describe how the two different groups vary in behavior Experimental Research: Determining cause and predict what will happen. There needs to be an experimental and a control group Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Erikson believes that our lives are divided in 8 dilemmas, that we must solve correctly. If we do not solve the dilemma, we will not be able to solve the dilemma in the next stage (the book didn’t have stages 2-4 so dont worry that they aren’t on here, you wont need to know them) 1. Trust vs Mistrust: A baby needs to be able to trust to have help with basic needs. Usually if a child has a secure attachment with a parent, they have successfully completed this stage 5. The 5 stage. Identity vs Role Confusion. Teenagers have discovered what they like and don’t like, their own talents. As a child, these things are pretty much decided by parents. Kids may argue with parents during this stage. A lot of kids grow up to be like parents, but a lot go off on their own paths. 6. Intimacy vs Isolation: Getting married in your 20s or 30s would complete this dilemma 7. Generativity vs stagnation: In 40s and 50s you want to help younger generations. Parenting, grandparenting, etc. Completing this will help you complete this dilemma 8. Integrity vs Despair: 60+, looking back at life after completing all of the stages along with many other things and being able to say “I have lived a good life” If you have failed to complete one of the dilemmas, it can cause sadness. 4 concepts of Lifespan Perspectives 1. We change in multiple directions. We might gain abilities and strengths. We might lose those same things and then will replace them with new things. Ex: You may lose some memory skills as you get younger, but also you gain more wisdom when youre old 2. Our development is flexible/plastic. Plasticity is learning to adapt to change. 3. Historical context happens because we have different experiences depending on the era or time we live. Growing up now is a lot different than growing up when they didn’t have cell phones or so much technology. 4. Change has multiple causes.