A neutral conductor contains a hollow cavity in which there is a +100 nC point charge. A charged rod then transfers -50 nC to the conductor. Afterward, what is the charge (a) on the inner wall of the cavity, and (b) on the exterior surface of the conductor?
MIDTERM AND FINAL REVIEW AND GUIDE Corrections Refers to all programs, services, facilities and organizations responsible for the management of the accused and convicted Prisons jails probation parole halfway houses education and work release programs community service 70-75 billion a year spent in the us Us has less than 5% of worlds population but almost 25% of worlds prisoners 1 in 100 adults were behind bars in prisons and jails Total 7.5 million adults and juveniles under “corrections” History of Corrections Penitentiary- an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society so they can reflect on their crimes and reform The Pennsylvania System Criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries Separate confinement – inmates held in isolation from other inmates Solitary confinement – would prevent further corruption New York System (rival) Congregate system: prisoners held in isolation at night but worked with other prisoners in shops during the day Worked under rule of silence and forbidden from even looking at each other Industrial efficiency should be purpose of prisoners Contract labor system : labor sold on a contractual basis to private employers private employers provided the equip. And inmates made products to sell. Cincinnati 1870: Advocated new design for the penitentiary system Reform should be rewarded by release Indeterminate sentencing guidelines, instead of fixed sentences Corrections in the US Each level of gov’t has some responsibilities for corrections State and local gov’t pay about 90% of the cost of all correctional activities in the nation Models of incarceration Custodial model : emphasizes security discipline and order Rehabilitation : emphasizes treatment on drugs Reintegration : emphasizes ties to families and communities Federal Bureau of Prisons Created 1930 congress Facilities and inmates are classified by security range Level 1 least secure Level 5 most secure Penitentiary at Florence Colorado ADX Florence – “Alcatraz of the rockies” State Correctional systems 40 states have created prisons that exceed maximum security About 20K inmates are currently held in super max prisons. Probation ends in 1 of two ways Offender successfully completes the period of probation Probationary status to revoke because of a tech. violation Once done sentence ends Parole Provisional release from prison Main goals- managing prison populations and incentivizing rehab. Types of intermediate sanctions 1. Fines: sum of money to be paid to the state by a convicted person as punishment for an offense. 2. Restitution- repayment to a victim who has suffered loss of the offense 3. Forfeiture- gov’t seizure property and other assets derived in criminal activity 4. Home confinement is another 5. Community service 6. Day Reporting Centers: Community correctional center where an offender reports each day to comply with elements of a sentence Private Prisons Response to prison and jail overcrowding and rising costs Argue that private enterprise can build and run prisons as effectively as gov’t but at lower cost to taxpayers Private facilities hold approximately 6% of all state prisoners and 15% of all federal prisoners Guaranteed occupancy rates Jails Jails are used for detention and short term incarceration Local facilities used to detain people awaiting trial Also serve as a holding facility for social misfits Super max- Colorado ADX Florence**** The contemporary jail Approx. 3400 jails in the US Because of constant inmate turnover they lack correctional services in jail The mixture of offenders of differing ages and criminal histories is also a major problem Community Corrections Community corrections seeks to build stability and success for offenders through the community Finding employment opp is an imp. Component of community corretions Based on the goal of finding “least restrictive alternative” Probation Conditional release into the community Submitting to drug tests, obeying curfews and staying away from certain people or parts of town About 4.2 million offenders currently on probation Probation Officers Thought of as police officers and social worker Supervise clients to keep them out of trouble and enforce the sentence Helps clients obtain housing, employment, and treatment services Caseloads National prob association recommended a 50 unit caseload Presidents commission on law enforcement reduced it to a 35 caseload Casey Anthony Case Was found not guilty for first degree murder Nor child abuse and aggravated man slaughter Casey – mom George and Cindy – grandparents Cylee – child who died Jose Byas – main defense attorney for Anthony Key Evidence Strand of hair in the trunk “air sampling procedure” Same testing showed chloroform was found Google search “chloroform” Caylee’s remains found on December 11,2008 Found in trash bag with blanket and duct tape CAUSE OF DEATH WAS UNDETERMINED Defense Accidental drowning in family swimming pool George Anthony disposed of the body Defense said that casey lied because of her dysfunctional family “fantasy forensics” – very little evidence to go on. Prosecution Big mistakes made from them 1. Over-trying Casey Anthony 2. Over –Charging her Caylee’s law was created and wanted to impose stricter requirements on parents to notify law when their child disappears or dies. Felony is a parents or legal guardian fails to report a missing child in a timely manner New Evidence