A radio wave is traveling in the negative y-direction. What is the direction of E u at a point where B u is in the positive x-direction?
CDAE 002 Final Study Guide Lecture 3/15/16 Nation-State and Indigenous People American History and Paradigms o Colonialism and Indigenous People o What is colonialism Policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas o Industrial revolution in Europe: accumulation of fortunes Nationalism, racism, etc. turns economic competition into political/military conflict o African Ethnicities before Colonization vs. Colonial border scramble o The scramble for Africa: Footprint of the Imperial Boot Changed education systems, legal systems, food provisioning systems, social systems Example: legacy of colonial languages o Footprint of Imperial Boot Cultural alienation Cultural imperialism (reference groups) Destruction of indigenous food systems Destruction of industrial industries Example: British prohibiting Indian textile industry Institutionalization of racism Selection of favored groups Training up to middle-class bureaucracy Native Americans o Constructing the Nation-State Creating the “other” “savages” unorganized inhumane killers raped women Language Boarding schools teaching English Pressure to assimilate Violence and Genocide Pushed to reservations on poor land Killed buffalo Indirect and direct forms o Indigenous People’s Culture vs. the Culture of Capitalism They are mobile They have their own resources and land They have a kinship based social structure Egalitarian societies They control resources and land desired by capitalists o Buffalo/bison o Boarding schools “Kill the Indian, save the man” o Dress as a form of assimilation o Doctrine of Discovery and General Allotment Act o Trail of Tears Cherokee people Indian removal policy 4,000 out of 15,000 died o 1880’s Ration ticket American Indian Museum Ration Day, people line up for food Poor diet consisting of lard, flour, bacon, sugar, coffee and beef o Self Determination Era (1965-Present) 1968: Indian Civil Rights Act passed 1975: Indian Self Determination and Education Resistance Act Tribal governments oversee their own social services o Government shutdown impact on Native Americans Majority of them live in poor, rural isolated reservations o Kalahari bushman Botswana Access to land poor Borders very difficult to cross Livelihood weak *video* Bushman Lack of acknowledgment of indigenous people from the government Building of walls Wearing western clothing Etc. The Nation-State o The origin and history of the state How did Europe change *video* = changing map of Europe throughout the years o Creating “the other” Group to distinguish yourselves by Country or individuals distinguished by their “otherness” Frustration and anger in economic downturns o Language, Bureaucracy, Education 3/17/16 Sochi Olympics o 9 time zones in Russia o Who is considered a Russian 185 different ethnicities Nationalism “We are all Russians” Demeaning others Distinct arts and music o Expelled ethnic group protests over Sochi’s dark history Sochi massacres in the 19 century Language as unity o France French speakers were the norm You got beat up if you didn’t speak French o UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger 528 extinct languages We lose the way we see the world through loss of languages British Empire dress and holidays o Another way to unify Education o Instruments to achieve: Order social stability national identity national defense economic expansions o Industrial societies and capitalist economics require: Division of labor Ability to shift from task to task and area to area Precise communication between strangers Universal literacy o Public school Lunches in different countries School lunch program goes back to WWI with malnourished soldiers Bureaucracy o Transportation systems linking isolated groups o Military service “support the troops” Bonding and unity if you were a part of the military Violence and Genocide o Cambodia Khmer Rouge (1975-1979) Pol Pot Quarter of the population died under his rule o Starvation o Medical neglect o Overwork o Execution Goals o Unify the nation o Purification Tools o Hard labor o Evacuated cities o Disorganized o Shock o Torture Who is affected o Women o Children *video* Most Evil Men in the world Country using violence against its own people Ronald Reagan 1980’s Americas and Communism *video* School of the Americas: School of Assassins o Army training o Combat schools o Latin America o People trained here go on to oppress and kill in their countries *video* War on Democracy o Interview with CIA operative o He denies everything Assassinations Murders Massacres o Shock Doctrine and Disaster Campaign Naomi Klein, author of “The Shock Doctrine” *video* Shock Doctrine Shocking people into obedience Techniques work on individuals but also can also work on groups of people, countries, etc. Shocks can be war, natural disaster, etc. Shock wears off Know what is happening around you and why 3/22/16 Peasant Protest, Rebellion and Resistance Indigenous response to colonial rule Characteristics of Indigenous people o mobile o Communal ownership of valuable resources o Kinship-based social structure o Egalitarian o Control resources or land desired by members of the capitalist nation-state What is a peasant o A member of the class constituted by small farmers and tenants, sharecroppers, and laborers on the land where they form the main labor force in agriculture Land tenure o The relationship whether legally or customarily defined, among people, individuals or groups with respect ro land o Defines who gets access to Use rights Control rights Transfer rights o Part of social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political structures o Land tenure relationships may be formal or informal Private Communal Open access State Peasant societies o General production systems Rent funds (landlords) Replacement funds (seeds for next year’s crops) Ceremonial funds (social cohesion) Production for self/gardens/livestock o Land based system Production depends on amount and quality of land for production Peasant protests struggles for land Challenges to peasant/smallholder agriculture o Economic and social changes o Land fragmentation o Reduced investment and support for smallholder agriculture Weapons of the weak o Peasant folklore Robin Hood o Avoid open confrontation Gossip Don’t come to work Threaten to work for others Resisting Colonial Rule (Kenya) o Footprint of imperial boot Plantation agriculture Primary product exports o Kikuyu and Mau Mau Rebellion British struggled to repress rebellion by Kikuyu peasant farmers Rebels/Mau Mau killed those loyal to the British o Social Organization Council of the elders o The Happy Valley Settlers Partied a lot Drank o White Highlands System of taxation and land removal Kikuyu used to own land but then they turned into squatters working to live on their own land Squatters sold their surplus Hours of squatter work rose Taxation on the money they did make Reduced Kikuyu land and livestock ownership Kipande ID tag that had o Age o Ethnicity o Work o Etc. Had to wear it at all times Any white person could write whatever they wanted on it o Kikuyu reserves and mission schools Reserves overpopulated Overplanted Extreme soil erosion Widespread hunger Migration to cities Mission schools Dress Language Culture Values o Resistance from individual collective Individual Strikes Not going to work Killing settler’s livestock Collective Kikuyu Oath Kenyan African Union (KAO) o Mau Mau: The Land and the Freedom Movement Rational Organized British became paranoid about the oath They round up suspects Detention camps Forced labor camps To try and destroy the oath Starvation Murder Rape Mutilation Few taken to court o If you were you were assumed guilty Kenyan independence Dec 12, 1963 Torture, Murder, Cover Up Long Arc of Justice Demands for reparations Reparations o Compensation for past wrongs o Who gets compensated Those directly harmed Descendants Direct or systematic o Cash, grants, credit International aid Small scale lending Grameen Bank USAID o Acknowledgment o Institutional change o Trade agreements o Changing colonial names o Choice of clothing Nelson Mandela o Cultural history Tourism of memory o Reparations Think about connections to justice, healing and closure Development Paradigms Improvement varies Capitalism o Individuals freely acting out of rational self-interest o Maximize pleasure o Minimize pain Free Market o Prices reflect scarcity and value o Restricted government role o Secure property rights o System of $ and credit o Enforce contracts o Facilitate international trade Government Intervention o Keynesian o Problems with Free Market Instability (Great Depression) Exploitive Can’t price accurately (externalities) System leads to monopoly o Need for enlightened government regulation o President Roosevelt o Bretton Woods and the World Debt New Hampshire meeting Work Progress Administration World Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and development To make loans for projects International Monetary Fund (IMF) Make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1995 ensure free trade of commodities among countries World Trade Organization (WTO) Rules on claims of unfair trading policies by member nations Development and Modernization Theory o Rostow’s Model Stages of Economic Development Traditional society Transitional Stage Take off Drive to maturity High mass consumption Large scale infrastructure development projects o Hydroelectricity o Roads Dependency Theory o 70’s and 80’s o 3 world underdevelopment is the result of 1 worldt overdevelopment o Roots lie in colonial history Core/Periphery countries o Structural disadvantages o Means of production o Economic sector Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory Debt crisis o Changing the meaning of money o 1971 US devalues dollar from gold No printing limits o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize Loans adjustable to go up or down Bigger the project the more the bank can lend Borrowers pay more on loan repayments than they make off of the loan Neoliberalism in the 1990’s/today o “liberal” in sense of no controls o “Neo” new Post Keynesian sense o Magic of the markets o Main elements Rule of the market Cutting public expenditure for social services Deregulation Privatization Replacing “public good” with “individual responsibility” Jamaica o *Video* Life and Debt (continued and finished on 3/29) The Free Zones Separate entity from Jamaica 3/24/16 International Community Development Why International Community Development o Hunger o Poverty o Diseases o World statistics High mortality rate in children Discrimination towards women o Community Development story in Honduras *video* World Vision Family farming o Grow lettuce for Walmart due to the help from World Vision Donated chickens for another family A woman started a savings club What does International Development mean o Beyond the border o Community owned and managed o Work for community well being o Mobilization of local resources o Focus to women, children, margined population o Technical and financial cooperation What’s the purpose o Improve quality of life Especially the poorest of the poor o Initiate sustainable development o Improve Human Development Index (HDI) and put people back at the center (UNDP) HDI based on: Life expectancy Adult literacy Enrollment in schools GDP per capita Goals of International Community Development o Make sure you link your paper to these goals!! o Eradicate poverty and hunger o Gender equality o Universal primary education o Reduce child mortality o Improve maternal health o Combat HIV/AIDS o Maintain environmental sustainability o Develop global partnership for development Followed by millennium development goals ICD story in Nepal o *video* International Nepal Fellowship Widow shunned by community Went to India but had to move back Joined International Nepal Fellowship and got a buffalo to sell its milk Now has enough money to support her daughter’s dream to become a nurse She is part of an INF support group Approaches of International Development o Top down *Graphic*: Middle layers take things along the way down so there’s little when it reaches the bottom Budget based planning Macro perspective Expert and consultant based Lack of transparency Possibility of corruption Ignorance of community needs and resources May create dependency and lack of community support Suitable for forming policies and procedures Ex: No Child Left Behind Equitable distribution of resources, states, county, district, etc. o Bottom up Better targeted to community needs Find micro solutions More innovative ideas Community ownership May lead to sustainability Transparency and flexibility in implementation People employment Women Minorities Mobilization of local resources Main focus areas of ICD o Infrastructure support Health care Transportation School Market o Continued on slide… 3/29/16 Radical Political Economy (70’s and 80’s) Change in society can transform society to be more socially responsible Power = inherent conflict with the rich and poor o challenge those in charge Good society o Consumer sovereignty (equal access to material benefits) o Access to meaningful work o Citizen sovereignty (people determine the type of community they live in) o Ensure equality and equity Dependency Theory o Structural disadvantages of periphery vs. capitalist core o Means of production and economic sector are most important in any society o *video* World Systems Theory Core, Periphery and Semi Periphery countries emphasize global inequality o Terms of trade vs. Capital Entrepreneurial skills Debt Crisis o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize o Loans are adjustable o Borrowers pay more than they receive o Reschedule debt payment—government alters policies through forced change for countries Impact on individuals and environment Debt o Most debt newly created (80% since 1990) o Emerging economies grow fast o Wealthy economies struggle to grow o Greece Structural adjustment policies due to debt *video* Crisis in Greece They feel like “economic hamsters” Strikes of all kinds by people from all walks of life and professions 7-year-old with asthma that can’t afford to go to the doctor no money for it Jamaica o *video* Life and Debt continued… Free trade zones Delayed payment to workers They say that Free Trade Zones are for the poor, but that’s not seen Agriculture Bananas They export to the UK Latin America grows a lot of bananas Costs more in Jamaica to grow same bananas grown in Latin America Chickens Poultry o Which theories of development do you see in the film Dependency Theory US deporting chicken for a lot less than it takes Jamaicans to do that same Neoliberalism Privatization of government None left for health, education, roads, worker rights, sewage o How does the mission of the IMF, WB and WTO relate to the film Governing instituitons setting the terms of trade Chiquita, Dole, Tommy Hilfiger, Hanes WTO Rule on Lome Gives Caribbean access to European countries They sided/ruled with Dole and Chiquita o Who is affected by IMF’s loans to Jamaica Workers Children Families Structural Adjustment Policies o Government focused on free trade Vermont farmers and temporary farm workers o 2,500 workers documented o Majority from Jamaica Banana Republics o Places that have one primary export crop o 5 international companies account for ¾ of the world banana trade o Bananas are the biggest profit making item in UK supermarkets o Cost of production is cheap—but what about externalities o Grown in tropical countries o Overuse of pesticides o *video* Fair Trade Bananas clip Special needs education The hope for free trade continues 3/31/16 Babies in the River Example o Babies floating down the river, what do you do iclicker question: Famine is caused by o The inability to buy or grow food Malthusian Paradigm of Development Overshoot and Collapse o Carrying capacity Maximum population of a particular speciies that a given habitat can support over time o Overshoot Condition in which population size of a species temporarily exceeds carrying capacity of environment Leads to sharp reduction in its population o Example: St. Matthew Island—Bering Sea 1944 US Coast Guard introduces 29 reindeer Lichens are extensive and there are no predators Over the years the lichens disappear and most of the deer died Malthusian o Carrying capacity o Humans will not be able to offset their consumption of resources o Good life unattainable o “Lifeboat” strategies and policies rationing immigration population o The Malthusian Catastrophe Famine, Hunger and Food Access Consequences of poor nutrition o 842 million people in the world don’t have enough to eat o 827 million live in developing countries o 1 out of 6 children is underweight o 1 in 4 is stunted o 80% of stunted kids live in just 20 countries Why the focus on stunted children o Stunting Below median height for age of reference population Results from nutritional deficiency during child’s first 1,000 days o Consequences Impaired cognitive development Bodies shut down Susceptible to disease Apathetic Do poorly in school Earn less when they become adults Example: brain scan of 3-year-olds normal and malnourished o International Response Stunting typically becomes permanent Improvement after age 2 can restore a child’s health to near normal Children grow up to be adults and it effects the country’s society, economy and development Vicious cycle Causes of Famine and Hunger o Biological o Crop failure o Social, Political, Economic o Misconceptions about world hunger World hunger is not due to insufficient food production Famine is the most common reasons for hunger and it’s rarely caused by food insufficiency Hunger is not caused by overpopulation o 2013 crop yields set records 1840’s Irish Potato Famine o Potato monoculture o Lump potatoes o Fungus in the potatoes from Mexico o Cloned potatoes have no diversity so when the blight hit, all potatoes were affected o “Famine fever” Cholera Dysentery Scurvy Typhus Starvation Death o Ireland was still exporting food to England Wheat Oats Barley Onions Peas Beans Lamb Rabbit Etc. o British rule Irish Catholics prohibited from purchasing land Had to rent plots and pay a landlord Farmers can’t pay rent so they are jailed or evicted 500,000 tenant farmers evicted off land and relocated to poor houses Died of starvation and disease Can’t purchase food or grow food because they don’t have enough money o Migration from Ireland Over 10 years, 2 million left for Great Britain, Canada and US Irish population reduced by a quarter in 5 years o Legacy Memorials Animosity toward British British eventually help bring in cheaper grain Start soup kitchens Emergency work relief Too little too late Long lasting effects Bengal Famine 1943 “Man Made Holocaust” o AKA Churchill’s Secret War o 3 million died from starvation and malnutrition o Burma taken by Japanese in 1942 o Cyclone hit in the same year o Panic among administrators that Japanese would take over the bay They destroyed food stocks in case they take over o Prices increased 4-fold between March and October 1943 Example: Davis Center food going from $7 to $28 o Rice is available but it’s being exported to British troops in Mediterranean o War time inflation o Increase demand for food o Price increase for rice Farmers hoard rice Rational reaction to get higher prices due to demand o Wages don’t follow the price trend Migration to cities 30% of the laborer class dies o Government mismanagement Preventing trade between states Calcutta must have food o Famine ends Bengal imports again o Churchill “The Indian people brought this upon themselves by breeding like rabbits” Malthusian idea War and Hunger in 2016 o Using food and starvation as a weapon is a war crime o Madaya, Syria *video* o Yemen conflict Saudi Arabia airstrikes to curb the rebels 1.5 million people displaced Trouble accessing food, water, fuel 14 million food insecure 7 million severely food insecure 1 in 2 children under 5 are stunted due to hunger *video* Children with life threatening malnutrition in Yemen o One of the keys in distribution of food and resources o What does hunger look like o Food riots in Mozambique Hunger and Famine review o Hunger isn’t caused by lack of food but by people’s lack of ability to purchase food o Famine is a reflection of Supply and demand Commodity price speculation Hoarding o Hunger and famine is a consequence of: Political unrest Bad government Disruption due to war o Global economic forces bring about poverty Low wages Debt of periphery The Working Poor and Hungry o Wal-mart Not paid enough Low wage protests o Happening in our own country not just globally th IPCC 5 Assessment of Climate Change o Climate change to lead to dramatic drops in wheat and maize o Climate change is projected to create more negative than positive aspects for agriculture o Climate change connected to rising food prices o California drought o Food abundance and food waste Demography: Population Growth, Migration and Urbanization World Population growth o *video* National Geographic video—7 billion We don’t need space, we need balance o Population policy Strategy for achieving a particular pattern or population change o Direct population policy Aimed specifically at demographic behavior Increase # of kids o Tax credit o Social services Limit # of kids Free contraceptives Legalize abortion Sterilization Improve quality of healthcare and education o Indirect population policy Influence population change but may not be designed too Trade Agreements o NAFTA Climate change Conflict/war o Demography Study of populations What happens over a person’s lifetime Population Balancing equation Birth rate # of births per 1,000 women of population each year Different in each country Liberia = 38/1,000 in the population US = 14/1,000 in the population Fertility rate # of live births per 1,000 women of child bearing age in given year Total fertility rate *on the slide* Fertility rates vary Worldwide fertility rates declining but the population isn’t *continued on the slide* 4/5/16 Belo Horizonte, Brazil o 2.5 million people o If you’re too poor to buy food, you are no less of a citizen o Constitutional right to food as a right of citizenship o *video* Brazil’s Zero Hunger Program Schools have free lunches Cantinas for the public o Land tenure = access to land o Direct marketing o Immediate use of crops for food o People’s Restaurants Locally grown food 50 cents/meal Families, kids, save $, working parents and women, elderly, low income workers o Infant malnutrition drops 50% o Consumption of fruits and vegetables increases o Costs $10 mil/year, only 2% of the budget o New social mentality Quality food for all is a public good o Not a public handout Job training in food service Government facilities Creates opportunity *iclicker question* How many children would you like to have Death rates o Total # of deaths per 1,000 of a population per year Life expectancy o Estimate of average number of years a person can expect to live based on age specific death rates for a given year o Varies in different countries Factors affecting mortality o Degeneration Biological deterioration of body Illness Diseases o Infectious diseases/ parasitic diseases HIV/AIDS Malaria o Food insecurity and hunger can contribute to mortality as well Exponential growth o Constant rate of growth applied to a continually growing base over time o Doubling time Time it takes for a population to double in size 70/x x = annual growth rate Global goals o Reduce population and fertility o Increase wellbeing and growth Why do you have kids o Families around the world differ in size, traditions, lifestyles Examples: Nigeria, India, US, etc. Demographic Transition Theory o Population vs. poverty o Links between fertility and economic development o Theory says: Economic development leads to lower fertility Ignores fertility rates as factor of social and economic factors Wealth Flows Theory (Caldwell) o Two types of Reproductive strategies No economic gain to restricting fertility Wealth flows from kids parents Economic gain to restrict fertility Wealth flows from parents kids o Relationship between family structure and fertility Importance of kinship Nuclear vs. Extended family Nuclear Mom, dad, children Independence Individualism Extended Kin Group collective Resource sharing Population o Women can adjust fertility in response to local conditions o Demand for children in developing countries remains high Cost is low Provide labor Security in old age Etc. Malthusian Theory o Neo-Malthusian Economic development requires lower fertility Masks other reasons for poverty Age Dependency Ratio o Ration of those in labor force and those not in the labor force o Dependents Younger than 15, older than 64 o Productive Working age population between 15-64 o Total Dependency Ratio (# of people age 0-14 + those 65 and older) x 100 (# of people aged 15 to 64) China’s Great Tsunami o Globally a greater number of older people o Mandatory retirement age 60 for men, 55 for women in white collar, 50 for other women More developed countries have aging populations Less developed have larger young populations Both young and old are outside of the labor force Megacities o Urban slum *video* Life in urban slums high poverty lack of infrastructure high sense of community concern for safety and education lack of stability vulnerable predatory landlords o Four Population “Megatrends” -Shifts in power dynamics Majority of population growth will occur in less developed countries Most developed countries will get older Most of world population growth will be in countries with youngest and poorest populations Most will live in urban areas *video* Population age structure Population pyramids Gender and Development: Women in Population Policies Girls education works Gender, power, reproduction *video* Gate’s Foundation for Family Planning 1994 Cairo Population Conference o Population is women’s issue o Rally support to help women deal with it o Confront and control consequences of: Growing population Growing poverty Growing affluence Birth control and paradigm shifts o 1964/1965 Rubella Pandemic o Zika virus Transmitted by mosquitos Babies are born with small heads 4/7/16 Gender Equality and Development o Beyond reproduction o Women’s triple burden Household (cooking, cleaning, collecting water Childcare Work outside the home o Why focus on women *video* UN Women: Putting the Women’s Agenda as a Priority What are the issues o 70% of women are abused but only 10% are in political leadership o Physical violence o Women lack basic rights and accesses to resources such as owning land, sending kids to school, get married, mobility What is the UN doing about it/What are the approaches and results o Electoral process o Stronger economies form stronger gender equality o Elect more women o Leadership training for women o Tribunals = open dialogues on violence to change the norm o ID cards o Violence Against Women Physical abuse Psychological abuse Economic discrimination Can’t get loans Lower pay for the same work Political disenfranchisement o Women in Development (WID) Gender and Development (GAD) Strengthen women’s autonomy economically and politically Full citizenship Freedom from violence in any form Sexual and reproductive autonomy o Core vs. Periphery Feminism Sisters in Islam Indonesia Don’t condemn Islamic beliefs Use Qur’an to identify women’s rights Use historical context to challenge customs Use Qur’an to question authority with community’s culture norms o Current Strategies Move away from “population control” Quality of life and empowerment are the targets Funding for pre/post natal care Wider access to contraceptives Policies that increase women’s status Decrease violence and discrimination against women o Conceivable future House party conversations for dialogue about having kids o Kenyan school boy article Boys can be part of the problem AND part of the solution o US Women’s Soccer Team Pay gap is $5.8 million Filed a suit against US Soccer o Maternity and Paternity leave World map for paid leave World map for breaks given for breastfeeding Not just about the women, men getting time off too is as important Swedish Dads photo series o Typhoon Haiyan UN agencies promote breastfeeding rather than bottle feeding because of dirty water and higher nutrients Breastfeeding in the military o UN delegation of women’s rights Touring in the US Evaluating US policies and attitudes School Health Prisons o Wonder Woman Propaganda for women who should be equal and, in this man’s opinion, should “rule the world” Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict o How do women experience conflict o Genocide Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political or cultural group o Disadvantaged Majorities and Their Revenge Genocide as an externality of the market Genocide in Rwanda “Ethnic Cleansing” in Rwanda Economic inequalities among groups are the source of collective violence but not enough by themselves to ferment violence Inequalities are exaggerated further by policies o Rwanda In 1994 between 800,000 to 1 million people were killed Majority of slain were Tutsis killed by Hutu militia Most done by machete and small arms Germany was the original occupier but then Belgium got control Don’t put all your eggs in one basket Legacy of export oriented agriculture Coffee markets, price drops for coffee and tin Drop in income for small farmers o Results in famine o Can’t purchase food Elites depend on income from tin, coffee, foreign aid o Pressure to keep foreign aid IMF imposes structural adjustment programs o Devalued the Rwandan franc o Price of fuel and necessities increased o Collapse in the education and health system o Peasants uproot coffee trees to grow food crops o Market for local food Attacks o Fleeing Rwanda Warning Signs of Genocide o Assassination o Death lists o Hate propaganda Radio Media o Demonization o Stockpiling of weapons o Civilian militia o Rape as a weapon o Who is Responsible for What Happened in Rwanda Not simply “tribal warfare” Hutus Tutsi leaders (before genocide they were in power) Colonial past (Germany, Belgium) US France World Bank/IMF Debt Characterized as “inner-ethnic violence” “Genocide” requires military intervention by UN so they didn’t use the term until 800,000 died o Yugoslavia 1945-1980 GDP was growing Free medical care Etc. 1991, Soviet Union breaks apart Yugoslavia created by: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Macedonia Cultural, ethnic, religious divisions are fallout of economic and political fracturing Neoliberal reforms in 1980s Privatization Monetary revolution Bank reforms Thousands laid off IMF and WB Reforms and structural adjustments Non-serbs couldn’t hold jobs, hunt, fish, be in groups of more than 3, sell real estate Ethnic cleansing 200,000 killed 2 million displaced Mass graves Fathers forced to castrate sons and molest daughters o Raped and impregnated Muslim women *video* The Wounds of War Bosnia Woman is brought back to a rape camp 18 years after her escape Trauma is still present, tears Serb soldiers raped women in these camps Painful decisions o Conflict ended with peace accords in Dayton, OH by President Clinton in 1995 Violence didn’t end until 1997 o Rebuilding and Moving Forward National Level Evidence of crimes Accountability Objective historical record RECONCILIATION Individual Level Identification of the dead Reburial and memorials CLOSURE Gacaca Court System “Justice on the grass” Focus on confession and retribution Public process Addresses large # of prisoners awaiting trial Importance of healing Sharing stories and storytelling People need to see change in their lives Create jobs Development, etc. Women and Small Business Development Rwanda’s HDI has improved since closure and healing Debt relief Assisted by renewed international attention to genocide More recognition of women “The Court of Women” in Hague Robbins Textbook REVIEW: Chapter 3 (Page 57): The Rise and Fall of the Merchant, Industrialist and Financier” o Bretton Woods and the World Debt NH meeting International Monetary Fund (IMF) = make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) = to make loans for projects Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) = ensure free trade of commodities among countries The “Second Great Contraction” o Bursting house bubble of 2007 o People bet wrongly that an asset would continue to increase in value o Start 1989, oil spill, loans, money in reserves o Broad Index Securities Trust Offerings (BISTROs) = took loans and shirted them to dummy corporations to sell to investors (JP Morgan did this) o Same thing with house market o Finance based on moving money and the money froze o US Trillion $ bailout o The problem is with internal logic of the economic system, not with greed Conclusion o Increased division of world wealth o Changes in capital organization o Increase economic globalization o Reasons for financial crises o Economies have to grow Chapter 4 (Page 113): The Nation-State in the Culture of Capitalism Spin, Free Trade and the Role of Energy in the Global Economy o US involvement in the middle east o Iraq invasion o Role of nation-state o Manufacturing Consent: Spin Definition Efforts of government and corporations to manipulate the manner that polices and events are represented by mass media Examples 9/11 Iraq war Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction Spin used to justify military action everywhere Not unique to government Spin used because of general disgust of elite in nation- states of democratic decision making “The Crowd” by Gustave Le Bon warned about power of the masses, emergence of spin Bernays “Father of spin” Public relations “News Engineers”, low opinion for public intelligence Democratic realism = best to limit government by the people and to refine democracy 1930’s, depression spin, present day spin o Markets and Free Trade Role of the nation-state Provide corporate sponsors access to markets and resources to establish rules and laws to maximize corporate profits Economic reforms on Iraq, given a list of demands by Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) No inference by democratic institutions on this matter Free trade removing barriers (Taxes, tariffs, subsides, social and environmental laws, customs) Barriers removed by agreeing with each other actions of organizations (i.e. World Bank, WTO membership) Who benefits Corporations Consumers (low prices) Wealthy nation Who is hurt Small farmers Business people not in corporations Laborers (restricted by wages and immigration laws) o Energy and Technology Iraq invasion involved oil Fossil fuels, global energy, price went up US largely dependent on foreign oil, what can reduce this dependency Maintain economic growth with energy dependant technology Cost for accelerating food production Technology makes everything faster Nations fight for oil access, more conflict happens o Conclusion Nation state created laborers and consumers to protect capitalist interests Violence used toward resistance of integration of this Spin, global militarization Nation state supports consumer, laborer and capitalist used in order to make profit Can be seen in every aspect of our culture Part II (Page 127) continued A Primer on Market Externalities o Polanyi’s Paradox How is it possible to get the market to perform efficiently without annihilating humans and natural substance of society Secret life behind a cup of coffee Wal-mart stores o Is population growth a problem Complex to understand Chapter 5 (Page 133): Population Growth, Migration and Urbanization -Demography -Demographic terms, migration, urbanization, mega cities -Impact of NAFTA and other trade agreements The Malthusians vs. the Revisionists o Malthus said disaster was imminent but he was wrong o However, unless we take measures to reduce population growth, the planet will be ruined o Those countries with birth control prosper and those who don’t will suffer social decline—is this true o The Case of India and China India tried family planning with little success China raised marriage age, limited amount of children gave incentives to those who complied Rates aren’t higher in China though Connection with economic development and population growth may be obscured o The Issue of Carrying Capacity Max # of organisms supported by an environment But our culture enables us to constantly alter out diets and exploit environment for food o The Ideology of Malthusian Concerns Do Malthusian arguments mask other concerns Malthus focused on rising # of poor as well Challenged by Marx who said that capitalism was to blame for poverty Eugenic theory Natural selection “fitness” People are poor due to heredity It costs $ to try and help the periphery Concern for overpopulation due to migration Malthusians may mask other more pertinent reasons for problems, diverts attention Demographic Transition Theory -World population grew very slowly due to balance with high birth and death rates -Then came medicine and death rates declines in peripheral countries -Suggests low fertility will result from economic development -This assumes: fertility has always been high, the only way to stabilize population growth is with birth control, fertility control is viewed as modern and rational -Theory has it’s own bias o A Primer on the Determinants of the Population Growth and Decline Fertility Frequency of birth depends on: o Period of infertility after birth o Time between ovulation and conception o Length of pregnancy o Fetal mortality o Birth control o # of years a woman can conceive Death Life expectancy Do people reproduce while alive in this period Migration Can affect reproductive rates o Less population pressure o Younger marriages, rising rates o Some Examples of Demographic Change The First Demographic Transition Prehistoric hunter and gatherers able to control fertility and adjust to conditions French Canadians High birth rate from early marriages led to demographic success Ireland Availability of land encouraged earlier marriages Populations adjust fertility rates and adapt without modern contraception Population Growth in the Periphery o Wealth Flows Theory o Social Implications of Wealth Flows Theory o The Question of Gender and Power o Issues of Immigration o History of Migration o The Economics of Migration o Understanding Illegal Immigration o Urbanization and the Growth of Slums Conclusion Chapter 6 (Page 168): Hunger, Poverty and Economic Development -we used to be optimistic about ending poverty, now it’s “normal” -How do people starve in the midst of plenty -Misconceptions: -World hunger is not due to insufficient food production -Famine is the most common reasons for hunger and it’s rarely caused by food insufficiency -Hunger is not caused by overpopulation The Evolution of Food Production: From Neolithic to Neocaloric -Why leave land where you’re making your own food to then buy food from others o From Gathering and Hunting to the Neolithic Swidden/slash and burn agriculture simplest way to cultivate crops Why did they switch to irrigation and plow agriculture Irrigation is bad for soil, etc. but it gets more food o Capitalism and Agriculture Growing importance of world trade Food became a commodity Growth of trade Growth of nonagricultural workforce Intervention of the state in food production Reducing labor demands made agriculture more profitable Also keeps good prices low Causes labor to go get industrial jobs Government subsidizes agriculture o The Neocaloric and the Green Revolution Neocaloric = substitutes nonhuman energy for human energy Result is called the Green Revolution High yielding varieties (wheat, corn, rice) New plants use more water and fertilizer Raised oil prices Greater use of pesticides Livestock production lead to increased grain Capital intensive agriculture The Politics of Hunger -people more vulnerable to hunger if opportunities for employment decrease/wages fall/food prices rise -Understand the economic, political, social relations that connect people to food -Situations of hunger o The Anatomy of Famine Caused by crop failtures, climatic disruptions, war Famines result from entitlement failures NOT insufficient food Famine in Malawi 1949 *page 178* Children and women died Women most affected o The Anatomy of Endemic Hunger Denial of hunger Social, economic and cultural factors produce hunger Brazil 1980’s *page 180* Death of infants due to hunger Turn starvation into a medical problem “Hungry body reflects nation-state” They look for “cures” to starvation and hunger Solutions and Adaptations to Poverty and Hunger o Economic Development Mending massive economic and social changes Critics says economic development fails—why Features Define goals and acceptable standard of living (income/GDP) Assumes that core culture and way of life is desired universally Power of core government over periphery Failed development projects Economic development is a product of high modern ideology Tanzania 1973-1976 *page 187* With most development schemes, authoritative states impose the programs and suppress residence Conclusion that the major fault of the project was the planners overestimated their intelligence o The Nature and Growth of the Informal Economy Employment is key for entitlement to goods and services What about lack of jobs Economic policymakers say the unemployed lack initiative “Informal” economy Gambling Theft Political corruption, etc. Represents significant portion of GDP Drug networks Formal and informal intersect o The Nature and Scope of the Informal Economy of Drugs Illegal drugs Mainstay of global economy for 300 years Opium, cannabis, coca Difficult to place in global economy Another sector that works like any other London in the 18 century Ginthrug NY in 20 century Crack cocaine Women are a significant part of it By criminalizing drugs only associated with marginalized population, you bring judicial authority onto these groups Marijuana #legalize Conclusion o Hunger is caused by people’s lack of ability to purchase food NOT lack of food o Poverty that causes hunger is a consequence of global economic forces o Political unrest also leads to hunger o Economic policies of wealthy countries aren’t designed to help poor countries o Financial opportunities of the informal economy Chapter 9 (Page 248): Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict -Indonesia, tolerant toward ethnic diversity -Integration necessary for expansion of capitalism -Loss of culture may occur -“Isolated populations”, management of indigenous people, nutrition programs, family planning programs -This is the nation state imposing standards of social structure and family authority The Fate of Indigenous People -Descendants of earliest populations who survive in the area and don’t control nation government of the country they live in -5% are indigenous in world population o Characteristics of Indigenous people Differs from