Infrared telescopes, which use special infrared detectors, are able to peer farther into star-forming regions of the galaxy because infrared light is not scattered as strongly as is visible light by the tenuous clouds of hydrogen gas from which new stars are created. For what wavelength of light is the scattering only 1% that of light with a visible wavelength of 500 nm?
February 23, 2016 Resource Curse and Women’s Rights in Islam ● Themes: ○ What is resource curse ○ Why does the government fail to perform ○ How does it hurt women’s rights ● Contrast between stagnation in resourcerich Africa and rapid growth in resourcepoor East Asia ○ True with Latin America, compared to East Asia ○ Supposed to do better with economy due to more resources but this is NOT true ○ In 80s, Latin America went into economic crisis and show that government unable to use it well ● Authoritarian rule in oilrich Middle East ● Dutch disease:combination of two elements ○ Having resources and government getting money from them so not accountable to the people ■ This is reason why Middle East has authoritarian government ■ Government can easily make money because resource provides all so government doesn’t have to do much so bad bureaucracy, discourages manufacturing. ○ Sell poor raw resource and buy expensive manufactured prodund resource owned by elite that don’t give back to society ■ Become hugely dependent on one source so if price falls then economy falls ○ Combination of influx of foreign currency and increase demand of nontradable goods ■ Influx of foreign currency will raise real exchange rate so easier to import a. Will be generated by oil b. Cheaper to import than product c. Vicious cycle because don’t create things, only import and only focuses on one good, NO MANUFACTURING SECTOR ■ Wealth increases wilncrease demand for nontradable goods drawing labor from manufacturing sector a. Work in retail and services ○ Results ione resource crowding out other tradable goods and decreases manufacturing for nontradable ● Role of Government: ○ To balance out,increase motives for other sectors to even out and being restricting importat(harder to do because WTO doesn’t allow import restriction) ○ Other tools includiversifying export and maintain tight fiscal policies ○ Why didn’t the governments do this ■ Cognitive eep making shortsighted policies ■ Social:the business, elites, clients and interest groups will lobby against any change to policy a. In Latin America, import substitution industrialization which had tariffs and subsidies to help domestic manufacturing which ended up not being competitive so unable to truly grow. ■ Statistthe government is “revenue satisfier” build to produce “good enough” and not go further because has stable income so no tax and no reinvestment thus has no reason to go against the groups. ● Resource Curse and Women’s rights: ○ In Middle Eastwomen are underrepresented in labor and government ○ General explanatiolames Islam ○ Ross’s explanation says thil production affects gender rights because women are unable to join work force ○ Growth encourages women to participate thus have more equality ○ Gender inequality is seen in nations dependent on oil and mineral extraction ● Effect of female labor participation: ○ Higher education, health and income (selfconfidence) ○ Higher social ability and political participation ○ Effect of lowwage exportoriented industries a. Example of North Korea spreading the textile industry allowing for women to join labor thus creating new groups to call for rights b. Subset of social mobilization discussed by Fukuyama when you go to work you make new relations c. Textile industry provides jobs that are easier and oriented for women ● Oil Production’s Impact on Female Work: ○ Factors influencing women’s decision to work ■ Prevailing female wage ■ Unearned female wage and reservation wage ■ Calculation is money earned is worth it ■ Don’t need to earn money if government gives it to them ● Empirical Evidence: ○ Independent VariableOil rent per cappercentage oil profit in GDP) ○ Dependent variablePercentage of women joining labor force and women in parliament ○ Lots of control variables ○ ResultsHigh in production correlated to low in women's labor force and political participation ○ Looking at oil countrslam majority is NOT significant ● Case Studies:Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia ○ ALL french colonies and have majority muslim population ○ After WWII, small amount of women groups ○ Algeria has highest oil rent and lowest women participation ○ Moroccos women’s rightswomen’s organizationsince 1970s increasingly focused on labor rights; after 1992 reform, family relations and increasingly running for office since 2000s ○ Tunisiaemale held parliament seats rose f.7% in 1995 to 22.8% in 2000 February 23, 2016 Reversing Development: Colonization and Its Impact ● Themes: ○ What are extractive institutTaking resources from one country and taking it to another. ○ What do they do to a country’s economy and political development ○ Relationship between extractive institutions and colonization. ● Indonesia:pice and genocide ○ Social structurepre16th century Moluccan Archipelago: ■ Divided int3 big kingdoms with supreme leader, center islands were a bunch of city states ■ LOCAL > NATIONAL ■ “Country of thousand islands” ■ Hard to have one centralized government to rule all islands. ■ Similar to Europe around this time ○ First Europeans in Indonesia wrortuguesewanted to monopolize spice trade but failed because local markets were in cand Portuguese didn’t have enough military power to force them. ■ NOTE: silk road is not a clear road, goes through Molucca to get to Europe ○ Dutch arrived in 17th centhey succeeded by going to northern, more centralized islands and many deals with ruler (madesign exclusive agreements) ■ Forced others to NOT grow clove ■ Cut down any trees that grew clove ○ To get Banda’sace and nutmeg they killed the people who grew it and created Dutch Trading Company like nation with military) ■ Genocide, adopting new slave system and imposed it ■ No central ruler in Banda ■ Slaves came from India ○ Impact: ■ Rise of price of these spices because supply decreased ■ Encouraged neighboring stateo destroy ALL resources ■ REVERSED local commercial expansion ■ Deurbanized and decreased population ■ Increased autocratic power of those rulers that made deals with Dutch ● Africaalltoousual institution (slavery was SUPER popular in history) ○ Slavery existed in Africa before Europe just not as harsh ○ Part of hierarchy, slaves were like family ○ Soar of slavery in Africa in 17th century: ■ Rise of international demand because Africa was the only supplier since European slavery ended (used to be the slavic prisoners of war) and Latin America unable to supply because all natives were dead ○ Who were the slaves: ■ Earlier came from Congo area because Dutch territory was under them ■ Lots of prisoners of war ○ Africa’s political institutions during this time: ■ Less centralizedmallscaled states and tribal systems ■ No structure of hierarchical political authority ○ Slave trade’s impact on political institutions: ■ Slave States: a. Europe gave guns for slaves which encouraged violence and conflict to make it easier to get slaves b. Absolutist states appearorganized around getting slaves ■ Destroyed order and legitimacn SubSaharan Africa ■ Elites and religion played part too a. Local religious leaders would bring in supporters and give them to slavery ■ Demographic fall ○ Postslave Tradetrade ended NOT SLAVERY ■ New international trend against slave trade ■ Slavery went fromexternal to internal a. Slaves didn’t go away just stayed in Africa and used to supply huge demand for “legitimate commerce” ■ Kidnapping begun, o contract given to people so still slaves ■ DELAYED INDUSTRIALIZATION a. Didn’t occur until after WWII and Cold War b. Slavebased extractive economy ● Dual Economy: ○ Arthur Lewisodern sector and traditional sector ○ People and resources more from traditional to modern ○ Ex: Natal 2 sides divided by Great Kei River (East = Modern; West = Traditional) ● South Africa: ○ Preapartheid: ■ Less affected by slave trade ■ Dutch settled a. Easier for Europeans to settle because less disease and there was mining ■ Boer Wars: British takeover in 19th century ○ Diamond and gold appear: ■ Impact on agriculture production (new agricultural development Ciskei and Transkei) ■ Increase of ownership of land and decrease of tribe influence ■ New farmer class appeared ■ European farmers were unhappy because they had new competition ○ Apartheid: ■ Native Land Act of 1913: a. Separate Europeanowned land and homeland b. Separation of social classes, labor force and education c. European job reservation system, property rights and voting rights ■ Impact: a. Huge inequality b. No motivation for majority of population making the economy fall in 1970s c. Extractive institution d. Impower tribe chiefs because got more control ● Questions: ○ Similarity between 3 of them ○ Impact ○ What would Fukuyama say ○ Why is his theories hard to apply to them