What is an inertial reference frame?
The State of Modern Dance in the 1950’s 1. Modern Dance was truly an American art form. Most modern dance activity was occurring in the U.S. 2. There were many modern dance companies and choreographers throughout the U.S. and there were also modern dance courses in colleges and universities. 3. However, despite #1 and #2, the great surge of creativity and popular enthusiasm for modern dance seemed to be over and there was not a large audience for modern dance. There were 5 reasons for this: a. Modern dance in the 1950’s was hard to understand and the audience did not know how to receive it. Understanding a modern dance concert meant people had to think which many people were not used to doing at ballet concerts. b. Modern dancers themselves did not always educate their audiences as to how to view modern and how to understand and appreciate it. c. By the 1950’s, there were many modern dance techniques and it was confusing to the audience. d. In the 1950’s, many modern dance choreographers were moving away from the theatrics and complexity of ballet and into minimalism and many audience members thought it was boring. e. Ballet was changing—especially due to George Balanchine, ballet now had a new vitality and excitement that it lacked in the 1930’s when modern began. So ballet was now drawing audience members away from modern. The State of Modern Dance in the 1960’s – 70’s ● There was a “new experimentalism” (minimalism). The new experimentalists’ performances were very “undancelike.” Their performances seemed to be improvised and unstructured, utilizing very simple, “pedestrian” movements. They often performed in impromptu, casual settings such as warehouses, churches, parks, and streets rather than in theatres. Their costumes were also very casual, for example, jeans and tshirts and they often performed to silence or the spoken word. These new experimentalists had a “nondance” or “antidance” approach and they appealed to a new type of audience. People who normally did not go to dance concerts or theatrical art events became the new audience for these events. A similar experimentalism was happening in all the arts at this time. Experimentalism has always flourished in modern dance. The essence of modern dance is that it challenges old traditions and represents a seeking of the new. Three Major Changes in Modern Dance in the 1980’s 1. New Choreographic Approaches These happened probably as a reaction to the minimalistic approach of the 60’s and 70’s when modern choreographers rejected complex organization and technical virtuosity. Instead, they used simple, pedestrian movement and stage settings and costumes. So, in the 1980’s, modern dancers started rejecting the minimalistic approach and made dances very theatrical with complex movements and patterns, used fuller staging and elaborate costumes, décor, and musical accompaniment. Choreographers once again presented dances that had meaning. 2. Modern Dance Cooperatives Independent choreographers and small modern dance companies began to work together in cooperative producing groups. By organizing small companies with limited resources together, they could pool their monies and efforts and do more than they could alone, for example, presenting a concert of several small companies. 3. Changing Relationship with Ballet ● During the early decades of modern dance, there was hostility between modern dance and ballet. ● Much of early modern dance was a statement against ballet. Early modern dancers felt that ballet was no longer significant—it was stale and outdated. And ballet dancers in the early days of modern dance felt modern dancers were not “real” dancers—they had no technique. ● But starting in the 1980’s and continuing today, there were 2 major shifts in these attitudes: ○ Modern dancers began to realize the importance of ballet training. Most modern dance techniques of today incorporate ballet movements and principles. ○ Ballet has been influenced by modern dance in terms of choreography. Many ballet choreographers of today starting with Michel Fokine have been influenced by modern choreography and have incorporated modern movements into their ballets.