A certain mutation in E. coli changes the lac operator so that the active repressor cannot bind. How would this affect the cells production of -galactosidase?
ANT 349 Archaeology Study of past human cultures. Most archaeologists are employed in cultural resource management. Indian Jones: The Quintessential Archaeologist Traditionally • White males (nonethnic) • University Professors Today • Majority in government and private sector Cultural Resource Management • Many minorities and women 2nd and 3rd generations of local scholars The Movie Archaeologist • “Cowboy Science” • Indiana Jones would get no tenure • More in common with 19th century Antiquarians than the archaeologists of the early 20th century The Origins of Archaeology • Emerged in western Europe in the 19th century • Colonized regions • 17th and 18th centuries: ‘Antiquaries’: Archaeologists more like treasure hunters • Focus on Antiquities of Classical Greece and Rome; Ancient Egypt; Neareast; Mesoamerica Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) • Gun Battles, Tombs, and Treasures • Goes to Egypt to sell irrigation equipment (18151818) • Plays a major role of emergence of Egyptology • Ramses II • Abu Simbel • Not a trained archaeologist; interested in treasures Ramses II ‘Young Memnon’ • Dragged from Thebes to Alexandria Recurring Themes • Exotic Locations: Egypt, India, Africa, South Ameirca • Lost Civilizations and Tombs Archaeological Sites: • Sites which tell you the history of past human activity and traces of that activity • Pristine, undisturbed • “No one has been here in years!” The Find: Search and Retrieve: • “It Belongs in a museum!” • Legendary objects: The arc of the covenant, Sankara Stones, the Holy Grail, Crystal Skull • Supernatural:Curses and Warnings, Disturbed tombs, Mummies The Adventure • “Rescuing” Artifacts • Fight enemies • Save the world (from dangers unleashed by the archaeologists) Modern Archaeology • Raiders the Lost Ark Set in the 1930s • Archaeology emerged as scientific discipline in the 19th century Today archaeology is about answering questions • Origins of human kind • settlement of americans • reasons for domestication • rise of civilizations Research Design Research and planning before you dig!!! • Review of previous Work • What are your objectives • PERMITS!! • How will you recover the relevant data archaeological survey, excavation, archival research, specialized methods Field Work • Most sites and fossil localities located by fieldwork Archaeological Excavation: • ‘Scientific Diggin’ • Archaeology is destructive the site is destroyed in the process of excavation Excavation: • Systematic removal of soil • Grids and maps help to accurately record findings How deep do you dig Vertical Excavation • Depth of excavation determined by the natural processes and human activities represented Horizontal Excavation • Exposure of larger areas one layer at a time • Reveal site and building plans; spatial organization; activity areas etc. Limitations of The Material Record Real Archaeology • Archaeological preservation often horrible! • “Finds” bits of broken pottery and other things Archaeological Preservation • Very little of the typical Stone Age tool kit from Scandinavia would be preserved Preservation caries: • Most mateiraldestroyed by time, nature, and human activity • Very small number of creatures are preserved for paleoanthropologists to find Kind Tutankhamum • Discovered by Howard Center in 1922 • Popular because his tomb was found intact. • The only one that was intact • Unique and exciting find. “Lucy” • Found in Ethiopia by Donald Johanson in1974; 40% complete Documentation! • Contest! The place where a fossil or artifact is found and all the associates materials: • How and why they are related Data Recording Archaeological Interpretation • Reconstruction of the past: “What happened when” Archaeologists are interested in how and why it happened; Reconstructing trade in prehistoric societies When did bipedalism (walking upright) emerge Theories • Theories answer “why” • Theories always open to reevaluation in light of new discoveries and information Humans evolved in Africa • Africa will have earliest fossils human ancestors • Africa will have the earliest evidence of modern humans • Africa will have transitional forms of human ancestors • African genetic material will suggest longer period of mutations Archaeologists are sometimes reluctant to accept new theory or interpretation Rating System • Almost the real thing • Check you facts • bits of the past • tabloid archaeology • truly ghastly Todays Film: Relic Hunter; Etched in Stone (1999)