Suppose that a person with damage to the hippocampus is unable to acquire new long-term memories. Why might the acquisition of short-term memories also be impaired?
Comparative Politics Federalism and Decentralization I. Federalism A. Federal vs. Unitary 1. Federal state – constitution gives two or more governments overlapping political authority over same group of people and territory Ex: Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico, Russia, U.S (among largest countries) U.S. most decentralized federal country in world - Strong federation - States have considerable policymaking power (ex. Same-sex marriage) - India = weaker federation, PM can takeover state rule 2. Unitary state – constitution gives central government final and exclusive control over policymaking across entire national territory Devolution – can give subnational units power but can take back that power whenever they want B. Where do Federal Systems come from 1. “coming together” federalism - countries combine and form an alliance to benefit from stronger security and a stronger economy ex. Australia, Switzerland, U.S. 2. “holding together” federalism - a solution to preserve a diverse country by giving some power to subnational units ex. Belgium, India, Spain 3. “putting together” federalism – coercive effort to put together a multinational state ex. Soviet Union C. Types of federal states 1. Population Congruent – demographic makeup of subnational units is similar - Ex. U.S. Incongruent – demographic makeup of subnational units differs - Ex. Canada 2. Power Symmetric – subnational units have equal powers relative to central government - Ex. U.S., Brazil, Argentina, Australia Asymmetric – some subnational units have more power than others - Ex. Belgium, Canada 3. Demos-constraining – institutions that limit power of people - Usually federal - Strong supreme court, senate 4. Demos-enabling – institutions enable power of people - Generally more centralized, unitary D. Case for federalism 1. Better match between policy and citizen preferences Residential sorting – over time people tend to live in states where they agree with the policies 2. Brings government “closer to the people” more accountable to citizens in subnational elections 3. competition among states for citizens and investment creates incentive for good policy/government 4. protection against tyrant through increased checks and balances 5. can promote stability in a country with multiple ethnic, religious, political identities E. Case against federalism 1. Unnecessary duplication and contradictory policies Resources being wasted States have different policies – ex. Same-sex marriage, abortion, marijuana 2. Additional layers of government make it difficult for voters to know who to hold accountable 3. May put minorities at disadvantage in some states 4. Competition between states may lead to “race to the bottom” Kansas City border war II. Decentralization 1. Refers to extent to which actual policymaking power lies with central or regional governments A. Case for decentralization 1. Helps to deepen and consolidate democracy by devolving power to local governments 2. Disperses political power 3. Improves resource allocation because local governments have better knowledge of local preferences improves efficiency B. Case against decentralization 1. Might increase inequalities 2. Increases size of government 3. Impedes fiscal restraint 4. Could increase corruption because there are more transfers of money