Earth to Sun Comparison The mass of the sun is approximately 2 * 1030 kilograms, and the mass of Earth is approximately 6 * 1024 kilograms. How many times greater is the mass of the sun than the mass of Earth? Write your answer in decimal notation.
Topics for the Second Exam (Tuesday March 15th, 2016) -Memory -Psychopathology Theories of Memory -Information Processing Model Encoding: the learning, taking information in Storage: keeping that learned information Retrieval: finding the kept information *Information is never lost, you simply have trouble finding it within your brain because it gets to be an “unorganized filing cabinet” Richard Atkinson’s Theory Sensory Theory: some believe that it shouldn’t be called sensory memory because it happens in the sensory organs -after the stimulus is gone you still have a 1-2 second memory of that stimulus Short Term Memory: brief, limited in terms of the time of the storage and the amount of storage available (about 15-30 seconds and 5-9 pieces of information) Long Term Memory: unlimited in both time and amount of storage available Endel Tulvig’s Theory Episodic Memory: remembering information and the entire event just as it was when you first learned/experienced ex) your high school graduation Semantic Memory: remembering information but not the event (you can remember what the information is, just not the circumstances of when you first learned it) Memory: Forgetting Interference Theory Retroactive Interference: the new information gets in the way and you can’t find the old information *most common type of forgetting Proactive Interference: the old information gets in the way and you can’t find the new information *less common Motivated Forgetting -Emotional Reasons (abused children forgetting the abuse) -Unpleasant things (fights) Amnesias -due to brain damages, illnesses and extreme stress -everytime someone can’t remember something that they should be able to remember (ex. your address) Anterograde Amnesia -not being able to recall the information from after an event ex) what happened after a car accident Retrograde Amnesia -not being able to recall the information from before an event ex) what happened before a car accident Memory Characteristics Recall→ remembering information by relevancy (like when writing an essay) Recognition→ the ability to identify the correct information among given wrong information (like a multiple choice exam) *People always do better with recognition Primacy→ tendency to remember information you studied first Recency→ tendency to remember information you studied last *Always better to divide up material you need to study & do it a little at a time Reconstructive Nature of Memory -finding all relevant pieces of information and piecing them back together -memory needs to be economical, it can’t waste space -problem: because of this, people often make mistakes and mis-match information about an event ex) eyewitness testimony *Shows memory isn’t as reliable as we think it is Psychopathology: Definitions of Abnormal Behavior Traditional definitions and their criticism -Deviation from the norm: a person is different from the average person problem: people can be different yet still not negatively abnormal ex) being extremely intelligent -Maladaptive behavior: the behavior is bad for the person problem: many behaviors are maladaptive but not abnormal ex) working overtime and having a heart attack; dangerous sports -Subjective Distress: the person is suffering (depression, stress) problem: certain behaviors that are abnormal aren’t associated with suffering David Rosenhan’s Studies First Study: -Tried to define abnormal behavior -sent students to psychiatric hospitals with fake schizophrenia and had them act normal and they stayed at the hospitals for a month -after they returned he got their records and the hospital staff had interpreted their normal behaviors as abnormal ex) one guy worked on a school paper everyday and they said he was obsessively writing Second Study: -contacted hospitals and told them that he was sending fake patients and that he wanted them to identify them -never sent any fake patients -hospitals reported that 30% of their patients were fake *Behavior is abnormal because of our expectations, and it depends on the context of the behavior on whether or not we consider it to be abnormal. Thomas Szasz’s Theory -Argued that in our society we make judgements (morally) and don’t approve of certain behaviors and use mental illness to control and explain those negatively judged behaviors Michel Foucault -Noticed that over the past 1,000 years more and more people are being considered to be abnormal → because society changed and became more organized and judgemental with higher expectations of people Psychopathology: Diagnostic System Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-V) -defines types of problems by specifying symptoms of disorders advantage→ makes precise definitions disadvantages→ well defined makes it hard for people who don’t have all the symptoms to be professionally diagnosed, as well as some symptoms aren’t always the same in every problem Psychopathology: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety States→ when a person experiences anxiety/fear but doesn’t have a specific trigger for the reaction -Generalized Anxiety: when someone feels anxious all the time (most people aren’t aware of it) -Panic Attacks: occasional overwhelming fear that happens for no reason *Severe problem because of the consequences such as causing a harming accident or a scene. Most people avoid doing things because of these consequences. Phobias→ experiences of fear triggered by something specific -Agoraphobia A person is afraid of public places (ex. supermarket) A person is afraid of being at a place in which they can’t escape -Social Phobia: feeling anxious because they are afraid of the negative judgement of others Specific: if a person get anxious when in a specific activity ex) speaking publicly Generalized: afraid of any interaction with others -Specific/Simple Phobia: being afraid of a specific thing -tons of them -extremely common, everyone has at least 1 ex) spiders, mice, darkness, heights Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions: thoughts people don’t want to have Compulsions: behaviors people need to do -most involve checking or cleaning things -have to repeat the action like they don’t believe that they already did it -anxiety occurs when they try and fight the obsessions and compulsions Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder -after an extremely stressful event the person experiences after effects such as nightmares and different way of reliving the event -some get past it after a certain amount of time, but others don’t -war veterans especially are effected Psychopathology: Mood Disorders Symptoms: Manic and Depressive Episodes Manic→ mood is abnormally high extreme cases: sleep loss, heart attack Depressive→ mood is abnormally low extreme cases: can’t talk *both can be anywhere from mild to extreme episodes Major Depression -Very low mood (severely), can’t enjoy things -no energy, cries a lot -trouble sleeping or oversleeping -usually needs to be hospitalized Dysthymic Disorder -mild depression -not severe enough to be hospitalized Bipolar Disorder -manic and depressive episodes, very severe -may need to be hospitalized Cyclothymic Disorder -moods changes very quickly or over a length of time -significant shifts between manic and depressive Depression and Suicide -high suicide risk when they begin to recover -may be because they have more energy -sometimes they create the impression that they are doing better when they actually aren’t Psychopathology: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Pain and Signal Pain -experiences pain, yet there is nothing wrong physically -most of the pain is psychological and difficult to tolerate -mind creates it as an alarm to stop what you’re doing (signal pain) -physical pain is more like pressure and more tolerable Somatization -when someone complains about a large number of symptoms that doesn’t make sense and there’s nothing wrong with them -person pays too much attention to their own body -happens a lot with the elderly Hypochondriasis -the belief that you have an illness even though the doctor(s) say otherwise Conversion Disorder (hysteria) -Losing function of an organ or body part even though there is nothing physically wrong ex. blindness, paralysis -Common 100 years ago, rare today -Seems to be based off of societal factors and the rates of expectations Studies on Hysterical Blindness -presented the blind with a light and turned it on and off, asking them which they thought it was -they mostly guessed wrong, which proved they could see it because they were giving too many wrong answers -examined individual life history of everyone and didn’t find any reasons for why they would lie about being blind (no benefits) -repeated the experiment and explained to the blind that they were giving too many wrong answers when they answered, which caused them to get frustrated but no other changes in behavior *Concluded: the blind could see the light, but they were seeing it subconsciously, they didn’t know they could see it Psychopathology: Dissociative Disorders -A phenomena involving a split in consciousness -Separating things and not letting certain parts be active Depersonalization -experience life as it if were not real, like in a dream -extremely common, not abnormal -only a disorder if it bothers the person -50% of the world’s population experience it several times a day Dissociative Psychogenic Amnesia -forgetting something (for emotional reasons) that you should be able to remember ex. abused children forgetting the abuse -too painful to remember in most cases Psychogenic Fugue -very rare a controversial (some think it’s not real) -involves complete loss of memory except of the skills or knowledge that you’ve already learned, you just don’t know how you know it -causes panics, hospitalization Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality) -Relatively rare -part of consciousness assumes different identity -person doesn’t feel comfortable with certain feelings, so they shift personalities and truly don’t believe that they did something connected to those feelings Psychopathology: Sexual Disorders Sexual Dysfunctions -related to anxiety -problems in sexual functioning Sexual Paraphilias -desires/practices that aren’t acceptable socially in society -have a lot to do with social values Desire Stage -before the actual experience -where problems can occur Hypoactive Desire: not interested in sex, indifferent opinion Sexual Aversion: negative attitudes towards sex Arousal Stage -problems with physical arousal -can happen to male or female -in males: erectile dysfunction -in females: lack of lubrication Intercourse Stage Dispareunia: painful intercourse (can be in male or female) Vaginismus: difficult/painful intercourse due to tense vaginal muscles Orgasm Stage -can’t reach orgasm, it’s inhibited (can be in male or female) -premature ejaculation, male has orgasm too quickly Treatment -usually very easy to treat because clients are highly motivated to be cured -the earlier the problem appears (stage wise) the more difficult it is to treat Paraphilias Voyeurism→ the desire to observe others having sex who aren’t aware of being watched (peeping tom) Exhibitionism→ the desire to expose yourself to unsuspecting victims Fetishism→ derives sexual pleasure from an inanimate object that isn’t meant for sex Partism→ arousal by parts of the body that aren’t typically arousing Sadism→ arousal from inflicting pain on others Masochism→ arousal from pain being inflicted on you Frotteurism→ arousal from going somewhere crowded and “accidentally” touching people Necrophilia→ arousal from having sex with dead people Treatments -difficult to treat because people usually don’t want to get better -many think they’re impossible to treat -often times people are legally ordered to go to therapy for them Psychopathology: Eating Disorders Anorexia -uncommon, very serious, very dangerous -usually requires hospitalization -involves a loss of significant weight and having a distorted body image of oneself -people aren’t comfortable with their own body -more than wanting to lose weight and look good Bulimia -very common, especially among women *In women ages 18-22, 25% are bulimic. -desire to lose weight according to ideal body images -uses unhealthy methods -inducing vomiting -taking laxatives -not as dangerous as anorexia -possible physical damage still common -esophagus -intestines Psychopathology: Sleeping Disorders Dyssomnias (involves the hours of sleep) -Insomnia: not sleeping very much, problems falling asleep or staying asleep -Hypersomnia: sleeping too much, constantly feeling sleepy Parasomnias (involves the quality of sleep) -Dream Anxiety: nightmares causing a feeling of the lack of sleep -Sleep Terror: like dream anxiety, wakes up in a state of panic and takes a while to calm down, causes anxiety and fear -Sleepwalking: gets up and walks around while still sleeping, usually perform complex tasks without getting injured or injuring others Sleeping Disorders in Children -all sleep disorders are very common in children -considered normal when a child complains of them Psychopathology: Schizophrenia *One of the most severe disorders, only ⅓fully recover→ ⅔bounce in and out of hospitals for their lifetime not being in touch with reality. Psychotic Symptoms -Delusions: beliefs a person has that don’t correspond with reality -Hallucinations: things a person perceives without appropriate stimulation (hearing things, seeing things, feeling things, smelling things and tasting things that aren’t actually there) Types -Paranoid: very expressive, will talk to you, feelings of persecution, most mild form, good chance of recovery -Catatonic: completely disconnected from the world around them, don’t answer/react when spoken to, most severe type, generally don’t recover, don’t express themselves, body rigidity Psychopathology: Substance Use Substance Abuse -using too much of a substance on a regular basis ex) alcohol, drugs, medications, etc. Dependency -needs to take the substance otherwise they get sick (withdrawal symptoms) -can have dependence without abuse ex) needing to have one beer a day -develops depending on the substance Psychopathology: Personality Disorders *Don’t involve specific symptoms, but the entire personality of the person. Avoidant→ avoids others because they get anxious and insecure around them Schizoid→ avoids others because they are happier alone Schizotypal→ weird in the way they talk, act and dress; very awkward; can’t maintain relationships of any kind Histrionic→ reacts with extreme emotion, very dramatic, changes moods easily Obsessive-Compulsive Personality→ perfectionist, under control, organized, planned Narcissistic→ needs to feel unique in either a positive or negative way, not ordinary Borderline→ has instability in their relationships, feel a sense of void emotionally, very sensitive to criticism and imperfections from others Antisocial→ takes advantage of others without guilt (like criminals), not very ethical Dependent→ expects others to take care of them, don’t want to be independent