In Exercises 3762, solve the equation. 2 y + 1 3 = 1 4
Chapter 4 notes: ● Carol Dweck crossword study: Children who are told they are smart chose the easy option because they didn’t want that title taken away from them. But when they are told they worked hard, they are inspired to show more effort to achieve success. ● Socializationleads to social reproduction: structural continuity over time. Children learn from elders Learn values and norms and practices The English language in America is an example of a characteristic that persists to this day. Cultural learning is more intense during childhood. Basic Concepts Agents of Socialization ● The agents of socialization are groups or social contexts that have socialization occur. ● Primary Socializationnfancy and childhood where language and basic behavior is learned from the family to the child. ● Secondary socialization hildhood and maturity, when schools and other outside work groups begin to influence behavior. Helps learn norms and values and beliefs of the whole culture. The Family . The range of family contacts is not standard across cultures (family systems vary too much) . Modern society: smallscale family context. American society is usually mom/dad/siblings. Other cultures incorporate more of the whole family. ● Premodern societies had the family birth determine your future. That is, depending on what family you were born into would determine the individuals lifelong social position. However, in modern societies, region and social class impend on situation. The School Formal process Accept, react, be quiet, it’s socially accepted to accept the teacher’s authority automatically. Peer groups form at schools and agebased classes reinforces influence. Peer Relationships ● Peer Group: Age influenced, all similar in age and social status. ● Agegrades: Small traditional societies peer groups (usually male) with ceremonies of one grade to another. Less apparent in Western societies about how significant peers are. Barrie Thorne CHildren create their own gender through interaction. Peer groups influence gender socialization when children talk about their changing bodies. Popular girls were changing, so others wanted to change too. Children values/activities are still influenced by media. Mass Media ● Mass Media is a form of communication designed to reach mass audiences. The most popular study is the influence of violence in TV on children. ● George Gerbner TV analysis of physical death or hram to others. Cartoons showed more than ever. ● Hodge and Tripp: Research has not incorporated children’s mental process. They interpret what they see rather than just see it. It is not violence that affects behavior, but the framework of attitudes within which is presented and read. ● Eugene Provenzo: Nintendo effects. Parents believed video games brought family together. However TV absorbtion made them want to play rather than go to school. ● Marsha Kinder: Social effect from video games. Gaming to cartoonist. ● Patricia Greenfield: Mass scale electronic influence of video games on our social lives. Work + Only in large industrial societies do people go to places to work seperately from home. Industrial societies call for a lot of adjustments on people’s behavior and outlook. Social Roles ● Social Roles: Socially defined expectations for a person in a given situation or social position. FUnctionalists regard these are unchanging parts of culture they are social facts. Social roles don’t involve negotiation or creativity, they just direct an individuals behavior. They internalize the role. THIS IS MISTAKEN! Humans exercise agency, they assume social roles through interaction, it’s not robotically instructed into them. Identity ● The concept of identity in sociology is multifaceted. ● Identity: Who you are and what is meaningful to you. Gender Sexulity Nationality Ethnicity Social class ● Social Identity: Other people attribute characteristics to others. This also places them in relationship to those who share those characteristics. Student Mother Lawyer Catholic etc. + all individuals havemore than one social identity. But this plurality leads to conflict since they have a primary identity that is continuous across time/place. ● Shared identities are predicated on common goals and values or experiences. They involve social movements as well as personal meaning. ● Self Identity Personal ID that sets us apart as individuals. We form our own unique ID through self development and our connection to the world. Revolves around symbolic interactionist. Individual choice and agency are key in shaping self ID outside of culture. More socially and geographically mobile due to urban growth and industry and and less social formations. Now Gender and sexual orientation play a greater role other than homogenous communities. The choices we make about what to wear and how to behave and spend our time help makes who we are as self aware beings. Socialization through the Life Course ● The stages of human life are social and biological. In modern West society we die of old age, but in traditional society, we die younger. Childhood + Infancy to teen years + Aries= Young Medievla children didn’t exist (work and paintings prove this) + The idea of child labor is morally repugnant is a recent change. Traditional other societies still have children work. ● A children centered society is NOT one that has love and care from parents and adults. Societies now are more child centered than traditional ones were, but the abuse they go through is common in present day society. The Teenager + it is a recent idea. + Biological changes in puberty (sexual reproduction and activity) are universal. ● Agegrade cultures have easier ceremonies since the pace of change is slower. ● But in modern society, kids have to take away their toys and break childish pursuits, whereas in traditional society doing this was less jarring since the children were already mature to begin with. ● Western culture They try to follow adults, but are treated like children lawfully. Young adulthood Women used to face the fate of childbirth more back then. ● People were usually closer to family and kin back then. But now marriage, family life and other contexts must resolve uncertainties. Individuals choose marriage now, not arranged family marriages, so it’s more personal ID now. More freedom= More responsiblity MidLife crisis= should have done more to contribute to society in the long run. Throw away opportunities that life had to offer. Old age Traditionally, age was authority. Elders had the final say. Industrial countries think less of them since they don’t contribute anymore. Yet now there are more old people throughout the years. it’s hard to reward their hard lives in modern society whereas they used to be the pinnacle of respect in older times. Be more physically healthy at old age to have prevalent “third age” since inner resources were looked upon greatly. Theories of Socialization ● One of the most distinctive features is that humans are self aware, animals are not. ● Most prominent child development theories emphasize different aspects of socialization. ● Cognition: The ways in which children learn to think about themselves in their environment. Developed by Piaget, but Mead mainly considered the “I and me” concept of children. ● GH Mead and the Development of Self + Mead= interactionism + Symbols and interpretation of meanings. Also concentrate on the self. ● Infants develop as social beings by imitating that which is around them. “Taking the role of the other.” The older they get, the more they understand and try mimicking an adult role. Only at this exact stage do they develop a true sense of self, identifying themselves as separate agents as a “ME.” (See self through others) ● Only learn by distinguishing I from Me. I= unsocial infant/ wants and desires without thought Social Self= Me. Individual by the reactions of others, a person only obtains this when they become aware of this identity. This leads toSelf consciousness= A wareness of one’s distinct identity as a person seperate from others. Obtained by socialization, learning the language is important. Ages 89 witness organized games rather than unsystematic play. They understand morals and values. generalized other= The moral values and rules of a culture which they are developing. This grows from understanding the rules of play and understanding equal opportunity. Jean Piaget and the Stages of Cognitive Development ● Emphasis on child capability to make sense of world. Skills grow depending on the skills completion before that one. ● Sensorimitor stage Birth to 2 years old= Physically explore and touch things to understand. Until 4 months, they don’t know anything exists out of their own vision. + The main accomplishment of this stage is understanding their environment has distinct and stable properties. ● Preoperational stage (most research) age 27, symbolic faction and using words and language to describe. Egocentric thought, they determine the world through their own position. They don’t know that other people have other perspectives. ● Egocentric speech What each child says is more or less unrelated to what the other speaker said. They don’t understand speed and weight and causality or number. THey talk to each other, but not like adults. ● Concrete operational stage 711.Abstract and logic starts to happen. Mathematics and causality. Less egocentric. + Up to this stage (^) are universal, but not all adults reach the next stage. This all depends on schooling. ● Formal operational stage 1 115. Grasp abstract and hypothetical, review all parts of a problem and theoretically find a solution. Freud’s theory + Influential and controversial theory of gender ID + Centers around the possession or absence of the penis. ● it is not only anatomy that matters, but the absence of such a gential is symbolic of masculinity or femininity. Age 45, boy unconsciously thinks father will remove his penis. Gives up love of mother due to father. Girls have penisenvy since they don’t have such an organ. if they level with mom, they are said to be “submissive” and recognize being “second best.” ● Latency period (early and middle years of school) has little sexual activity until puberty happens. This is when samesex peer groups are most important in their lives. ● Controversial due to: Penis superior to vagina Father as definitive figure Gender too associated with genitals Concentrated at 45, but it begins earlier for other authors Chodorow’s Theory + Argues that learning gender identity has to do with infant attachment to parents during infancy. + Mother is more important here since they are more associated to infants early lives. Must be separated to gain self dependence. ● Breaking process is different for genders. Girls hug and kiss more, so they develop a sense of self continuously with other people as they get older since there is no sharp break from mother. Her identity is either closely associated to the mother or then later to a man= sensitivity and emotional compassion. Boys have radical rejection, they just don’t want to be feminine. They are more analytical and less dependent on others. Less feeling, more action and glorification of their abilities. + This almost reverses Freud’s emphasis. ● Masculinity= Defined by loss of connection to mother. Formed through seperation and isolation. They feel in danger if they depend too much on others. ● Femininity= No close relationship equals loss of selfesteem. Women express themselves in terms of relationships. men are more manipulative. ● Criticisms (by Sayers) Doesn’t explain struggle of independent women. Only based on white middle class model families. Femininity may conceal feelings of aggression only obliquely in certain contexts. ● Male Inexpressiveness T he difficulty men have in revealing their feelings to others. Gilligans Theory + Focused on adult men and women, stemmed off Chodorow. Agrees with idea of women valuing relationships/ judge ability to care for others. Women’s concern for relationships appears weak to men, even though the women are helping the male to begin with as a helpmate/caretaker. ● What is morally right or wrong (200 people were asked) Males say: Ideals of duty and justice and freedom Females say: Theme of helping others (felt contradiction between harming others and following code) + Women are successful in selfview when they help others rather than individual achievement. Research on Socialization Today Women in the Workforce ● Deborah Car Focused on the change of women over the centuries. Studied middle class twentieth century families. Women were expected to stay home and take care of children. Men were the money makers and gender ID was clear here. ● New Midlife= The time for new beginnings in women. Pick up new hobbies and learn from daughters and especially start their own business away from husbands. Challenge: To translate private troubles into public issues show women they are not alone. Older women now regret not being as active as their daughters currently are. Daughters has difficulty staying close to family due to work, but they also had liberation and self esteem. Early Child Care and Youth Development ● Belsky researches studies different environments children grew up around and within, such as who they were raised by and such. (NICHD) measured periodic amount of care and compared it to their progress on test scores and emotional capabilities. Children in childcare were often less well behaved despite considering socioeconomic resources and mental health in parents. + The differences between child care and parentraised are very small. ● Other important findings: Children in child care had better vocabulary Quality of parenting was more important than where they were cared for Parents have more of a long term connection while child care is short Family life was stable, school was always changing Unanswered Social Questions About Socialization ● Gender socialization: The learning of gender roles through social factors of family/media. Gender Socialization: Reactions of Parents and Adults Parents reactions to their children are actually different depending on gender no matter if they think it’s the same or not. Gave child different toys just based on gender, but it was the same child. Gender Learning + Gender learning by infants is unconscious. + Women’s cosmetics scent differently from males, so before a child can label itself as a boy or girl, it receives preverbal cues. ● Age 2, small understanding of gender. Only at 5 or 6 do they understand that sex doesn’t change and it’s all anatomy based. ● Zammuner: Toy preference study 710 years old. The Italian culture chose more genderdifferentiated toys than the Dutch since Italy holds traditional view of gender more. Girls chose genderneutral toys more than boys chose girl toys. Storybooks and TV ● Weitzman: Books and gender study. Girls were less frequent and were often confined to small tasks while males were independent and strong. Women outside of the home were fantasy fairies and stuff while males were cops and kings and such. Bulk of literature stays the same. Feminists rewrite prince trope, but this is for adults. Difficulty of nonsexist child rearing ● Statham: Study nonsexist child rearing, combined feminine and masculine things in study. It was easier to play with gender neutral toys than to ask boys to be sensitive and ask girls to be more adventurous. Once gender is assigned, it’s a social construct. The Question of Video Games ● Breivik: urdered 77 people by practicing on GTA4. ● Gentile: strong correlation b/w violence in games and aggressive children. Negligence and drug use too. Even nonviolent children will get aggressive if they play these games Games teach to push and shove, as well as violent media. + There is no causal effect The Entertainment Software Association. The “results” lack concensus and are ambiguous. ● Sternheimer: Contrived definitions of aggression. Would this violent player fine more in Monopoly Would they blow their horn Would they read words aggressively ● Ferguson: Countered Gentile, violent games did not contribute.