ISBN Codes Each book registered in the Library of Congress must have an ISBN code number. For an ISBN number of the form D-DD-DDDDDD-D, where D represents a digit from 0 9, how many different ISBN numbers are possible if repetition of digits is allowed? (See research activity Exercise 72 on page 746.)
Chapter 1 Ways in which microbes affect our lives including the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes. ● food productioncheese, yogurt ● beer ● environmental cleanup (bioremediation) ● commercial applicationsdrugs ● humans are dependent upon microbes for digestion and immune system Differentiate the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms. Bacteria ● unicellular ● prokaryotic ● can be shaped rodlike, spherical, corkscrew, or curved ● cell walls are made of peptidoglycan ● reproduce by binary fission ● some can manufacture their own food by photosynthesis ● can swim due to flagella Archaea ● prokaryotic (if they have cell walls, they lack peptidoglycan) ● Three main groups: methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles Fungi ● eukaryotic ● unicellular or multicellular ● can’t carry out photosynthesis ● cell walls have chitin ● reproduce sexually or asexually ● obtain nourishment by environment Protozoa ● unicellular ● eukaryotic ● move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia ● vary in shapes ● parasitic or nonparasitic Algae ● eukaryotic ● photosynthesis ● cell walls w/cellulose ● plays important role in the balance of nature Viruses ● acellular (not made with cells) ● very small in size ● reproduce only by using cellular machinery or other organisms Helminths ● multicellular ● parasitic (animals only) ● very small ● eukaryotic Explain importance of observations made by Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek. ● Robert Hooke first visualized cells cell theor all living things are made of cells ● Leeuwenhoek first visualized microbes (“animalcules”) Compare spontaneous generation and biogenesis. What evidence supported spontaneous generation How did the results of Pasteur’s experiments lead to the rejection of spontaneous generation ● Spontaneous generation *life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter *living cells can arise from nonliving matter under favorable conditions *vital forces in nonliving matter can lead to new life ● Biogenesis *living cells can arise from preexisting living cells *life can arise as a result of microorganisms present in nonliving matter *microorganisms present in nonliving matter can lead to new microorganisms ● Aristotle proposed that life can arise from nonliving matter. ● Redi’s experiments in the 1600s showed that animals do not spontaneously generate (meat & flies) ● Pasteur’s experiment (sshaped flask & gravy/ no microbes appeared) *supported the theory of biogenesis *microbes can be blocked from accessing favorable growth environments *microbial life can be destroyed by heat *microorganism can be present in nonliving matter such as air, liquids, and solids Koch’s Postulates 1. The suspected agent (microbe) must be present in every case of the disease. 2. The agent must be isolated and grown in pure culture 3. The cultured agent must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible experimental host (animal or plant) 4. The same agent must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host Identify the importance of Jenner’s work. What is the significance of Jenner’s discovery ● Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine. What is chemotherapy What was the first antibiotic and who discovered it ● Chemotherapy: the chemical treatment of a disease ● Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, Penicillin.