Cheaters, scope of inference. Exercise 1.5 introduces a study where researchers studying the relationship between honesty, age, and self-control conducted an experiment on 160 children between the ages of 5 and 15. The researchers asked each child to toss a fair coin in private and to record the outcome (white or black) on a paper sheet, and said they would only reward children who report white. Half the students were explicitly told not to cheat and the others were not given any explicit instructions. Dierences were observed in the cheating rates in the instruction and no instruction groups, as well as some dierences across childrens characteristics within each group. (a) Identify the population of interest and the sample in this study. (b) Comment on whether or not the results of the study can be generalized to the population, and if the findings of the study can be used to establish causal relationships.

Problem 1.10

Cheaters, scope of inference. Exercise 1.5 introduces a study where researchers studying the relationship between honesty, age, and self-control conducted an experiment on 160 children between the ages of 5 and 15. The researchers asked each child to toss a fair coin in private and to record the outcome (white or black) on a paper sheet, and said they would only reward children who report white. Half the students were explicitly told not to cheat and the others were not given any explicit instructions. Differences were observed in the cheating rates in the instruction and no instruction groups, as well as some differences across childrens characteristics within each group.

(a) Identify the population of interest and the sample in this study.

(b) Comment on whether or not the results of the study can be generalized to the population, and if the findings of the study can be used to establish causal relationships.

Step by step solution:

Step 1:

(a)

The study was conducted on children between the ages of 5 and 15. So the population of interest are children. Each child represents a case of study. A sample represents a subset of the cases and is often a small fraction of the population. The 160 children taken from a population of childrens between the ages of 5 and 15, represents the sample in the study.