Suppose that 90% of orange tabby cats are male. Determine if the following statements are true or false, and explain your reasoning. (a) The distribution of sample proportions of random samples of size 30 is left skewed. (b) Using a sample size that is 4 times as large will reduce the standard error of the sample proportion by one-half. (c) The distribution of sample proportions of random samples of size 140 is approximately normal. (d) The distribution of sample proportions of random samples of size 280 is approximately normal.
03/02/2016 ▯ CH 7 ▯ What is a concept ▯ Grouping “items” into categories based on similarities. ▯ Concept= mental representation with categorization of exemplars Concrete objects: natural, artifacts Abstract (“alive”) ▯ Why do we form concepts From concepts to make sense of our environment Organize what we’ve seen already, so we can identify NEW things Make predictions about new things based on our concepts (of old things) ▯ Grouping objects into categories ▯ Development from infancy to adulthood Perceptual similarity (3-6 mos)- interact with world with hands, limited, categorize by object similarities (what they look like) o Ex. A very young child would categorize a tomato as a ball Function or Theme (14 mos) – lot more information about what things do, categorize by function. o Ex. A young child will understand all the bath items (rubber ducky, soap, towel) all go together Taxonomically (2 yrs.)- organizing hierarchically o Animals (superordinate) dogs, fish, birds (basic) Chihuahua, collie, poodle (subordinate) salmon, clownfish, shark (subordinate) canary, robin, macaw (subordinate) o Learn basic category first ▯ Abstract Concepts Dream Time Number Alive ▯ Naïve Biology ▯ Inheritance (expect babies look like parents), Illness (know you get better or you die), Healing (band aids) ▯ Essentialism- understanding each have their own essence that makes them what they are (qualify what is a bird and what is a fish) Keil Raccoon-to-Skunk Experiment- had pictures of skunk ▯ Naïve Psychology (childrens naïve growing understanding of how we work together and relationships) How people relate in our social world – learn over time (social relationships) Theory of mind- children’s understanding or theory of how minds work- understanding that your mind is distinct from other peoples mind and in time. (you can know something now that you didn’t previously know)- discontinuous development, age 4 o Age 3-4 years old, theory of mind develops- understanding what a mind is. Kids point to their head when they have a thought. o My mind is independent from others’ mind False Belief Task – fill crayon box with candles. Snoopy thinks there are candles in the box. But originally the kid thought it was crayons, but now know its candles. Kid held false belief Appearance-Reality task- we ask a child to differentiate for us what something appears to be and what it actually is. Sponge looks like a rock but really is a sponge. Ask them, they will say what they thought it was before they knew Maynard the Cat (DeVries)- Sweet cat that kids loved, but put a scary dog mask on cat and the kids wouldn’t get near it. o Belief in Imaginary Friends & Fantastical Figures- children with a theory of mind will tell you that they have an imaginary friend and others cannot see them. Beliefs in santa, easter bunny, etc… theory of mind helps explain why you believe in something but someone else doesn’t. Development of Self: before children can relate with other people they have to know themselves. o Before 18 months kids don’t understand and don’t recognize themselves or their own thoughts, feelings, dreams, etc.. o 18 months- give Rouge Test- put baby in mirror and put makeup on nose and see if they try to wipe it off themselves or try to wipe it off the mirror. Relationship with Others: understanding of self, understanding of joint attention- two people are paying attention to same action and are aware they are both interested in the same things (Tomasello), understanding of intention- allows a child to understand if someone is intending to do something vs. accidental (Jaswall) ▯ Concepts are mental representation that allows categorization of exemplars ▯ Concepts for objects & abstract notions ▯ Concept development allows child to learn about Objects Self & others World ▯ CH 8 ▯ Intelligence and Academic Achievement ▯ Research topics: individual differences, Nature vs. Nurture, Cultural Implications, SES (socioeconomic status), can you raise your IQ ▯ What is intelligence Multiple theories: o Intelligence as a Single Trait: hypothesis that each individual possesses a certain amount of g (general intelligence) Measures of g correlate with Indicators of school achievement (people with higher g do better) Information-processing speed (higher g solve more quickly) The speed of neural transmission in the brain (people with higher g, neuron speed- messaging- is faster) Knowledge of subjects not studied in school (higher levels of g tend to know more information about things they have not formally studied in school) o Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities: hypothesis that there are two types of intelligence: Crystallized intelligence: factual knowledge about the world (what is gravity, who is the president) – trivial pursuit Fluid intelligence: the ability (how quickly) to think on the spot to solve problems – life, common sense, get things done quick o Intelligence as Multiple Processes: ** do not need to memorize Thurstone- seven primary mental abilities John Carroll proposed an integration of competing views of intelligence, the three-stratum theory of intelligence ▯ How do we measure intelligence ▯ Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC) ▯ The most widely used instrument for children 6 years and older ▯ 12 mini tests Divided into two main sections (each has 6) A verbal section that focuses on general knowledge of the world and skill in using language (banana is yellow) A performance section that focuses on spatial and perceptual abilities and speed (block task- picture and the blocks are usually red and white with a red diamond when all blocks put together. Kids have blocks to make a replica of the picture) Verbal and performance score and will give a generalized iq score if the scores are similar. If scores are very different they will not compute an overall score and it may indicate a learning disability. ▯ Intelligence QUOTIENT (IQ) an overall quantitative measure of a child’s intelligence relative to that of other children IQ scores for large, representative groups of children of a given age fall into a normal distribution… Reliable (repeatable) 95% of population falls within two standard deviations of mean. Gifted is around 130 Disability is around 70 100 is average mean is 15 SD 15 ▯ 0-55 = 0.13% ▯ 55-70= 2.14% ▯ 70-85= 13.59% ▯ 85-100= 34.13% ▯ 100-115= 34.13% ▯ 115-130= 13.59% ▯ 130-145= 2.14% ▯ 145+ = 0.13% ▯ ▯ The stability of IQ scores ▯ IQ is typically stable over time ▯ IQ can fluctuate ▯ Fluctuations caused by: Individual differences in children Parental and child views of school, work ethic, discipline, etc. Aunt with Alzheimer’s originally was IQ 130 but went to 68 ▯ Gifted Children ▯ Some gifted children have advanced abilities in one or more areas (e.g numbers or music) ▯ A smaller subset of gifted children show advanced abilities across domains ▯ IQ Scores as Predictors ▯ IQ is a strong predictor of academic, economic, and occupational success (kids with IQ OF 130 will excel more than a group with 100. Get better jobs and make more money) ▯ IQ predicts later occupational success (along with other factors)- get better job, nicer car, house, more opportunities etc.. ▯ ▯ There are multiple theories defining intelligence as both a single entity and as multiple constructs- TRUE ▯ ▯ There is a great deal of empirical support for intelligence as a single construct- “g”- TRUE ▯ ▯ If Allen has an IQ of 130, he is smarter than at least 90% of the population- TRUE ▯ ▯ Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence ▯ Nature vs. Nurture Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of development: child and their genetic makeup is at the center. A child’s genetics at center of model is being directly affective of their microsystem and then the exosystem and then the macrosystem but the child is also affecting their system based on their intelligence. o Microsystem: family, religious setting, classroom peers o Exosystem: school, community, health, mass media o Macrosystem: economics, political systems, culture, nationality, society ▯ The Environmental Contribution Home – measured by Home Measurement- social worker/researcher evaluates home environment in terms of support system, discipline, control & warmth (emotional, responsive to child)- does child have what they need (toys, book, bed, cleanliness, clothes, food, etc…) School- measured by Class Measurement- does teacher have control over classroom, teacher warm and responsive, etc… Economic and Social Systems- afford healthcare, medical facility near house... if a kid is sick all the time with no medical facility for care, this will affect their development and education. ▯ Beating the Odds Some poor children beat the odds and succeed in school and in life, often because of high-quality parenting (RISK factors: divorce, no medical treatment, moving, job loss, not enough money, etc..) o If you have 5 (or more) risk factors that occur at the same time, the ability for you to continue learning at max capacity no longer occurs. These individuals are described as resilient children o Oprah had extreme adversity as a young child but she did not fail do to the multiple risk factors but she excelled. o Protective factors that make you resilient to extreme adversities- faith, mentor, self motivation, intelligence, one person who loves you (most important and prominent protective factor) ▯ Racial/Ethnic Differences The average IQ scores of children of different racial and ethnic groups differ Racial/ethnic groups differ in their profiles of intellectual abilities as well as in overall scores Up to 30 years IQ disparity The opportunities in order to do well on the test are what affect the differences ▯ Multiple Factors environment ▯ Sameroff- environmental risk scale based on a number of features of the environment that put children at risk for low IQs ▯ Scores are stable over time & related to IQ and changes in the child’s IQ over time ▯ Interventions Many home- and center- based intervention programs were initiated in the 1960s to enhance the intellectual development of poort children Carolina Abecedarian Project, a comprehensive enrichment program for children and low-income families Project Head Start based on income and the requirements for child to go there and is also required to take a certain percentage of children with a disability, this program has their own research agenda and seeks to improve children’s outcomes. Two generation intervention. They have this two year preschool. ▯ Alternative perspectives on Intelligence ▯ A number of contemporary theorists have argued that many important aspects of intelligence are not measured by IQ (not measuring enough of the kinds of intelligences) – no empirical evidence to support these theories Gardner- multiple intelligence theory- 8 different theories of intelligence (language, music, math, analytical, practical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, logical) if you learned through the intelligence that is your strongest, you will learn best o Math and music are highly related, so idea is that if you are a strong musician you would learn math better if they taught it to you in a music framework Sternberg- theory of successful intelligence- 3 different types of intelligence (practical, analytical, and creative)- the purpose is that all of the rest of the intelligence theories focus on what you know and how you apply it (analytic) and these theories are saying it is a lot more than just analytical intelligence. ▯ ▯ ▯ CH 9 ▯ Theories of Social Development ▯ The role of theory Theories of social development attempt to account for important aspects of development: emotion, personality, attachment, self, peer relationships, morality and gender ▯ Influential Theorists ▯ Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has had greater impact on western culture and on thinking about social and personality development than any other psychological theory ▯ ▯ Stages of Psychosexual Development ▯ Oral (first year): primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity. During this stage, the mother is established as the strongest love- object ▯ Anal (1-3 years): the primary source of pleasure comes from defecation ▯ Phallic (3-6 years): characterized by the localization of pleasure in the genitalia ▯ Latency (6-12 years): Characterized by the channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable activities ▯ Genital (12+ years): sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal. One of the first people to suggest development are discontinuous/stage-like ▯ ▯ Erik Erikson’s life-span developmental theory, which was a successor to Freud’s theory, has also been influential ▯ ▯ Psychosocial development stages ▯ Trust vs. Mistrust (first year): developing trust in other people is the crucial issue ▯ Autonomy vs Shame and doubt (1-3 years): the challenge is to achieve a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to increased social demands ▯ Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years): resolved when the child develops high standards and the initiative to meet them without being crushed by worry about not being able to measure up ▯ Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years): the child must master cognitive and social skills, learn to work industriously, and play well with others ▯ Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence): adolescents must resolve the question of who they really are or live in confusion about what roles they should play as adults ▯ ▯ Psychoanalysts focused on how resolving internal crises was important for development ▯ ▯ Learning Theories – emphasize the role of external crises ▯ John Watson ▯ The founder of behaviorism ▯ Believed that children’s development is determined by their social environment and that learning through conditioning was the primary mechanism of development “Little Albert” Classical Conditioning ▯ ▯ B.F. Skinner ▯ Reinforcement ▯ Attention as a powerful reinforcement ▯ Become social beings by learning ▯ Intermittent reinforcement “operant conditioning”- after a behavior, reinforce or reward behavior or punish ▯ Behavior modification therapy : apply behavior analysis- applying operant conditioning techniques to change behavior ▯ ▯ Behaviorists focused on how learning was important for development ▯ ▯ Albert Bandura ▯ Observation and Imitation ▯ Social learning theory ▯ Terms Vacarious reinforcement Reciprocal Determinism – learning ▯ ▯ Theories of Social Cognition Your thoughts about the social world- how you are social ▯ Social Cognitive Theories Children’s ability to think and reason about their own and other people’s thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors – helps you be more aware of your social behavior Emphasize the process of self-socialization ▯ Robert Selman’s Theory Focuses on role taking Preschoolers have limited social cognition due to lack of perspective taking Selman proposed 4 stages in their think about other people- friendship stages ▯ 1 6-8 years: children come to appreciate that another person can have a different perspective from their own, but they attribute this to the other person’s not having the same information they do ▯ 2 8-0 years: children become able to think about the other person’s point of view ▯ 3 10-12 years: children can systematically compare their own and the other’s points of view ▯ 4 12+ years: Adolescents can compare another person’s perspective to that of a generalized other ▯ ▯ Ken Dodge’s Information-Processing Approach Role of cognitive processes in social behavior Children go through six steps in solving social problems Aggressive children have a hostile attribution bias – aggressive behaviors ▯ ▯ Carol Dweck’s Social Cognitive Perspective Role of self-attributions in academic achievement Mastery orientation vs. helpless orientation Entity vs. incremental theory ▯ ▯ Social cognition theorists focused on how social influences drive development ▯ ▯ ▯