Consider public policy aimed at smoking. a.Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is about 0.4. If a pack of cigarettes cur-rently costs $2 and the government wants to reduce smoking by 20 percent, by how much should it increase the price b.If the government permanently increases the price of cigarettes, will the policy have a larger effect on smoking one year from now or five years from now?c.Studies also find that teenagers have a higher price elasticity of demand than do adults. Why might this be true?
Chapter 11 March 28, 2016 Hormones and Sexual Behavior Sex hormones affect the development of sexual characteristics and (especially in animals) active sexual behavior Males: testes—testosterone Females: ovaries and adrenals—estrogen Sexual orientation Sexual orientation refers to a person’s preference for relationships with o Homosexual: 1-3% of population o Heterosexual o Bisexual: ~1% Homosexuality is more likely based on biological factors, not environmental factors (nurture) o Differing brain areas o Genetics o Prenatal hormone exposure Animal Homosexuality A number of animal species are devoted to same-sex partners, suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world Genes & Sexual Orientation A number of reasons suggest that homosexuality may be due to genetic factors Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families Twin studies: homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins; but there are mixed results Fruit Flies: genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females Biological Correlates Hair whorl Index/ring finger ratio Performance on tests of spatial ability Hypothalamic responses Birth order (with right-handed brothers only) Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation: the desire for significant accomplishment Skinner devised a daily discipline schedule that led him to become the 20 century’s most influential psychologist People with a high need to achieve tend to: o Choose tasks that allow for success, yet o Still require skill and effort, and o Keep persisting until success is achieved Why does one person become more motivated to achieve than another Attitudes Towards Work People have different attitudes toward work Some take it as a o Job: necessary way to make money o Career: opportunity to advance from one position to another o Calling: fulfilling a socially useful activity Flow and Rewards Flow: the experience between no work and a lot of work o Marks immersion into one’s work o No work: apathetic, underwhelmed o A lot of work: anxious, overwhelmed People who “flow” in their work are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards Work and Satisfaction In industrialized countries work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand QUIZ 1. Homeostasis refers to a. The tendency to maintain a steady internal state b. The tendency to seek external incentives for behavior c. The setting of the body’s “weight thermostat” d. A theory of the development of sexual orientation ANSWER: A 2. According to Maslow’s theory a. The most basic motives are based on physiological needs b. Needs are satisfied in a specific order c. The highest motives relate to self-transcendence d. All of these statements are true ANSWER: D 3. Which of the following is inconsistent with the drive-reduction theory of motivation a. When body temperature drops below 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, blood vessels constrict to conserve warmth. b. A person is driven to seek a drink when his or her cellular water level drops below its optimum point. c. Monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward. d. A person becomes hungry when body weight falls below its biological set point ANSWER: C 4. Beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following represents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by Maslow a. Safety; physiological; esteem; belongingness and love; self- fulfillment b. Safety; physiological; belongingness and love; esteem; self- fulfillment c. Physiological; safety; esteem; belongingness and love; self- fulfillment d. Physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self- fulfillment ANSWER: D 5. Which of the following is a difference between a drive and a need a. Needs are learned; drives are inherited b. Needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states c. Drives are generally stronger than needs d. Needs are generally stronger than drives ANSWER: B 6. One problem with the idea of motivation as a drive reduction is that a. Because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction b. It fails to explain any human motivation c. It cannot account for homeostasis d. It does not explain the hunger drive ANSWER: A 7. Increases in insulin will a. Lower blood sugar and trigger hunger b. Raise blood sugar and trigger hunger c. Lower blood sugar and trigger satiety d. Raise blood sugar and trigger satiety ANSWER: A 8. One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it a. Places too much emphasis on environmental factors b. Focuses on cognitive aspects of motivation c. Applies only to animal behavior d. Does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them ANSWER: D 9. Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize ______ factors in motivation a. Environmental b. Cognitive c. Psychological d. Biological ANSWER: D 10. Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as a. Needs b. Drives c. Instincts d. Incentives ANSWER: C CHAPTER 12 March 31, 2016 Emotions Organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in one’s relationship to the world These reactions are: o Partly inner or subjective experiences (psychological) o Partly measureable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal Controversy Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience Commonsense View When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster First comes conscious awareness, then comes physiological activity May not be correct in all cases Why do we feel emotion James-Lange theory o Our awareness of our peripheral response is emotion o Opposite of commonsense view o Physiological activity precedes the emotional experience o Perception of stimulus leads to arousal then emotion Canon-Bard Theory o Emotions come directly from the brain o Don’t come before/after physiological o Independent of what body is doing o Proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body’s arousal take place simultaneously o Perception of stimulus leads to arousal and emotion Cognitive Theory (two-factor theory) o We interpret events outside and inside our body o These interpretations lead to emotions o Suggests our physiological and cognitions create emotions o Emotions have two factors: physical arousal and cognitive label o Perception of stimulus leads to arousal and cognitive label, then emotion Components of Emotion Psychological (subjective) experience: “how we feel” Emotions are behaviors: shouting when angry, crying when sad Emotions as physiological responses: increasing heartbeat, sweating o Influenced by our autonomic nervous system Physiological Similarities Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar Excitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal Physiological Differences Finger temperature, facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division Parasympathetic (arousing) division (calming) Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract Decreases SALIVATION Increases Perspires SKIN Dries Increases RESPIRATION Decreases Accelerates HEART Slows Inhibits DIGESTION Activates Secrete stress ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of hormones stress hormones Arousal and Performance Arousal in short spurts is adaptive We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty Difficult task needs little arousal to perform best Easy tasks need high arousal to perform best Cognition does not always precede emotion Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala or the cortex for analysis You can have an emotion and not realize it Two Routes to Emotion Speedy, low-road: (Zajonc/LeDoux) event—emotional response Thinking, high-road: (Lazarus/Schachter-Singer) event—appraisal —emotional response Detecting Emotion: In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior: When shown sad, happy, and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men The Effects of Facial Expression: two groups asked to rate jokes on funniness Group one had pen touching lips Group two had pen not touching lips (makes them smile) Funniness rating was higher for the group who couldn’t touch the pen with their lips Facial feedback hypothesis: brain gets feedback based on what your face is doing Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions o Most are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt Joy, anger, interest, disgust, surprise, sadness, fear QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. On mental rotation tasks, gays and lesbians have been observed to score _____ than heterosexual men and _____ than heterosexual women. a. Higher; higher b. Lower; lower c. Higher; lower d. Lower; higher ANSWER: D 2. A completely focused state of consciousness resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills is called a. Grit b. 360-degree feedback c. Transformational leadership d. Flow ANSWER: D 3. For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to a. Lower the set point b. Shorten the refractory period c. Maintain homeostasis d. Reduce blood glucose levels ANSWER: C 4. The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high a. Basal metabolic rate b. Body mass index c. Set point d. PYY level ANSWER: B 5. Flow is characterized by a _______ awareness of self and a _______ awareness of the passing of time. a. Heightened; diminished b. Diminished; heightened c. Heightened; heightened d. Diminished; diminished ANSWER: D 6. By manipulating a single gene, scientists have been able to control sexual orientation in a. Humans b. Chimpanzees c. Fruit flies d. All of these organisms ANSWER: C 7. Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and a. Late sexual maturation b. The age of an individual’s first erotic experience c. Atypical prenatal hormones d. Early problems in relationships with parents ANSWER: C 8. Andrea views her work as primarily an opportunity to climb the corporate ladder in pursuit of increasingly better positions. Andrea apparently views her work as a a. Calling b. Job c. Contract d. Career ANSWER: D 9. Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology’s principles to the workplace a. Social psychology b. Personality psychology c. Developmental psychology d. Industrial-organizational psychology ANSWER: D 10. The fraternal birth order effect refers to a factor associated with a. Task leadership b. Achievement motivation c. Eating disorders d. Sexual orientation ANSWER: D